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on vascular plants in Germany
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traits within the group: Floral and reproductive biology

name description
Type of reproduction Reproduction can be by seed or vegetatively.
Type of seed production Seed production is either sexual (amphimicitc) or apomictic. In amphimixis, one of the pollen sperm nuclei unites with the egg cell and form the zygote. The other unites with the polar nuclei and forms the endosperm
Type of apomixis Apomixis can be pseudogamous or autonomous. In pseudogamy, pollination is necessary, in autonomous apomixis no pollination is needed for seed production
Dicliny Dicliny, is the spatial separation of sexes with male and female organs on different flowers and/or plants. Hermaphroditic flowers with male and female organs are monocline.
Dichogamy Dichogamy is the temporal separation of sexes: in protogyny the female function precedes the male function, in protandry the male function precedes the female function. In homogamy or adichogamy both functions occur at the same time.
Heterostyly Heterostyly is the formation of styles and filaments of different length on different plants which is often accompanied by differences in pollen size and pollen surface. Heterostyly often coincides with intramorph incompatibility and acts as outcrossing mechanism.
Self-sterility and self-incompatibility Presence and strength of self-incompatibility of self-sterility. Self-incompatibility is defined as the failure of production of viable zygotes after selfing. It is a genetically controlled mechanism of self recognition and rejection of self-pollen prior to fertilization of the egg cell. "Self-sterility" is defined similarly but without a defined mechanism.
SI mechanism Genetic/physiological mechanism of SI
Pollen vector Pollen vector or type of pollen transfer. Pollination is independent of fertilization.
Breeding system The breeding system is defined by the origin of gametes that unite to form offspring. Breeding system in plants range from obligate outcrossing (xenogamy) over mixed mating systems (facultative xenogamy, facultative autogamy) to selfing (autogamy) and automixis (only in ferns)
P/O ratio Ratio of number of pollen to number of ovules per flower
Floral rewards Nectar, pollen, oil or deception provided by flowers that attracts insects
Flower color Flower colour or description of flower coloration
UV reflection of the flower UV refection in the periphery of the flower. Flowers often reflect UV light, which is important for flower recognition in insects. UV reflection may vary between central and peripheral parts of the flower leading to UV patterns.
Flower class after MUELLER MÜLLER (1881) classified the insect pollinated flowers into 9 classes. The main aim was to achieve grouping of pollinators. The nectariferous flowers were grouped according to the depth of nectar display in those with open (A), partly hidden (AB) and hidden (B, B´) nectar. Only rough groups of pollinators can be assigned to these groups, which differ in length of proboscis. Furthermore flowers with smaller pollinator range are grouped into e.g., bee (Hb), bumble bee (Hh), fly (D) and moth (Fn) flowers. Apart from these also morphological types are distinguished.
Flower type after KUGLER Flower type after KUGLER
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