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Overview of all traits of a species

species information (Systematics, BiolFlor-Names, Status)
BiolFlor-Name family german name(s)
Betula nana L. Betulaceae » Zwerg-Birke
reference
Kühn, I., Klotz, S. 2002: Systematik, Taxonomie und Nomenklatur. In: Klotz, S., Kühn, I., Durka, W. (Hrsg.): BIOLFLOR - Eine Datenbank mit biologisch-ökologischen Merkmalen zur Flora von Deutschland. Schriftenreihe für Vegetationskunde. Bonn »
 
Synonymy (taxonomy after Wisskirchen & Haeupler, 1998)
Betula nana L. accepted
 
group of traits: Status »
Floristic status »
Floristic status I (indigenous)
Evolutionary origin »
Evolutionary origin n (naturally)
Region of origin »
Region of origin 0 (not specified)
Endemism »
Endemism 0 (not specified)
Reference unbekannt
 
group of traits: Chromosome number »
Chromosome number »
Basic chromosome number 14
Chromosome number 2n 28
Chromosome number (Germany) True
Most common chromosome race False
Ploidy level 2 (diploid)
Ploidy type R (palaeopolyploid; polyploid basic number)
Reference Oberdorfer, E. 1983: Pflanzensoziologische Exkursionsflora. Ulmer, Stuttgart
 
group of traits: Phylogeny »
Phylogeny code »
Phylogeny code BBBBBBBBBABBBABBBBAABC
 
group of traits: Morphology »
Life form »
Life form N (Nanophanerophyte)
Qualifier always [1]
Life form S (Hemiphanerophyte)
Qualifier always [1]
Life span »
Life span p (pluriennial-pollakanthic)
Qualifier always [1]
Vegetative propagation »
Vegetative propagation a (Runner)
Qualifier always [1]
Shoot metamorphoses »
Shoot metamorphoses a (Runner)
Qualifier always [1]
Rosettes »
Rosettes r (Erosulate plant)
Qualifier always [1]
special references:
de Groot, W.J., Thomas, P.A., Wein, R.W. 1997: Biological Flora of the British Isles: Betula nana L. and Betula glandulosa Michx.. Journal of Ecology 85:241-264
Söyrinki, N. 1939: Studien ber die generative und vegetative Vermehrung der Samenpflanzen in der alpinen Vegetation Petsamo-Lapplands. Ann. Bot. Soc. "Vanamo" 14:1-404
Gelting, P. 1934: Studies on the vascular plants of East Greenland between Franz Joseph Fjord and Dove Bay (Lat. 73o15'-76o20'N). Medd. om Groenl. 101:1-337
Kästner, A., Karrer, G. 1995: Übersicht der Wuchsformentypen als Grundlage für deren Erfassung in der "Flora von Österreich". Florae Austriacae Novit. 3:1-51
Rauh, W. 1938: Über die Verzweigung ausläuferbildender Sträucher mit besonderer Berücksichtigung ihrer Beziehung zu den Stauden. Hercynia 1:187-231
 
group of traits: Leaf traits »
Leaf persistence »
Leaf persistence s (summer green)
Leaf anatomy »
Leaf anatomy m (mesomorphic)
Leaf anatomy e (helomorphic)
Leaf form »
Leaf form voll (full)
 
group of traits: Flowering phenology »
Flowering phenology »
Begin of flowering (months) 4
End of flowering (months) 6
Duration of flowering (months) 3
Number of flowering phases 0
Symphenological Groups »
Phenological group 0 (not available)
Phenological season: not available
Reference Dierschke, H 1995: Phänologische und symphänologische Artengruppen von Blütenpflanzen in Mitteleuropa. Tuexenia 15: 523-560
 
group of traits: Floral and reproductive biology »
Type of reproduction »
Type of reproduction vvs (mostly vegetatively, rarely by seed)
Reference de Groot, W.J., Thomas, P.A., Wein, R.W. 1997: Biological Flora of the British Isles: Betula nana L. and Betula glandulosa Michx.. Journal of Ecology 85:241-264
Type of seed production »
Type of seed production s (amphimictic, sexual)
Reference Bengt, J. (Hrsg.) 2000: Flora Nordica 1. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm
Dicliny »
Dicliny mo (monoecious)
Abundance always [1]
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Dichogamy »
Dichogamy a1 (slightly protandrous)
Reference de Groot, W.J., Thomas, P.A., Wein, R.W. 1997: Biological Flora of the British Isles: Betula nana L. and Betula glandulosa Michx.. Journal of Ecology 85:241-264
Self-sterility and self-incompatibility »
Self-sterility and self-incompatibility I+ (± self-incompatibel)
Reference de Groot, W.J., Thomas, P.A., Wein, R.W. 1997: Biological Flora of the British Isles: Betula nana L. and Betula glandulosa Michx.. Journal of Ecology 85:241-264
Systematic reference species [S]
SI mechanism »
SI mechanism GSI (gametophytic self-incompatibility)
Reference de Nettancourt, D. 1977: Incompatibility in angiosperms. Springer, Berlin
Pollen vector »
Pollen vector wi (wind)
Pollen vector group: ab (abiotische Bestäubung)
Abundance always [1]
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Systematic reference species [S]
Breeding system »
Breeding system X (allogamous)
Reference Anmerkung 2002: xenogam, da SI
Floral rewards »
Floral rewards 1 (nectar)
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Amount of floral reward 1 (none)
Flower color »
Flower colour light brownish green
Basic flower colour gr (green)
Reference Schubert, R., Jäger, E.J., Werner, K. (Hrsg.) 1987: Exkursionsflora Band 3. Atlas der Gefäßpflanzen. 6. Aufl., Volk und Wissen, Berlin
Flower class after MUELLER »
Flower class after MUELLER W (wind flowers)
Typical pollinators: -
Flower type after KUGLER »
Flower type after KUGLER 0 (not applicable)
 
group of traits: Seed traits »
Fruit type »
Fruit type Nu (nut)
Diaspore type »
Diaspore type F (fruit)
Diaspore type FZb (fruit with appendage)
Germinule type »
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Germinule type F (fruit)
Information available True
Development of nutritious appendages  
Development of flat appendages always [1]
Development of elongated appendages  
Development of additional appendages  
Weights »
Measured object Diaspore
Type of germinule or diaspore F (fruit)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Weight (minimum) [mg] 0.1
Weight (mean) [mg] 0.2
Weight (maximum) [mg] 0.3
Measured object Germinule
Type of germinule or diaspore F (fruit)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Weight (minimum) [mg] 0.1
Weight (mean) [mg] 0.2
Weight (maximum) [mg] 0.3
Sizes »
Measured object Germinule
Type of germinule or diaspore F (fruit)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Length (minimum) [mm] 2.5
Length (mean) [mm] 2.8
Length (maximum) [mm] 3.2
Width (minimum) [mm] 2.5
Width (mean) [mm] 2.8
Width (maximum) [mm] 3.0
Height (minimum) [mm] 0.2
Height (mean) [mm] 0.4
Height (maximum) [mm] 0.6
Measured object Germinule
Type of germinule or diaspore F (fruit)
Constraint True
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Length (minimum) [mm] 1.0
Length (mean) [mm] 1.6
Length (maximum) [mm] 2.0
Width (minimum) [mm] 0.8
Width (mean) [mm] 1.1
Width (maximum) [mm] 1.5
Height (minimum) [mm] 0.2
Height (mean) [mm] 0.4
Height (maximum) [mm] 0.6
Measured object Diaspore
Type of germinule or diaspore F (fruit)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Length (minimum) [mm] 2.5
Length (mean) [mm] 2.8
Length (maximum) [mm] 3.2
Width (minimum) [mm] 2.5
Width (mean) [mm] 2.8
Width (maximum) [mm] 3.0
Height (minimum) [mm] 0.2
Height (mean) [mm] 0.4
Height (maximum) [mm] 0.6
special references:
Grime, J.P., Mason, G., Curtis, A.V., Rodman, J., Band, S.R., Mowforth, M.A., Neal, A.M., Shaw, S. 1981: A comparative study of germination characteristics in a local flora. Journal of Ecology 69:1017-1069 (Gattung)
Brzeziecki, B., Kienast, F. 1994: Classifying the life-history strategies of trees on the basis of the Grimian model. Forest Ecology and Management 69:167-187 (Gattung)
Atkinson, M.D. 1992: Biological Flora of the British Isles: Betula pendula Roth. (Betula verrucosa Ehrh.) and Betula pubescens Ehrh.. Journal of Ecology 80:837-870 (Gattung)
Beijerink, W. 1947: Zadenatlas der Nederlandsche Flora. Biol. Stat. Wijster, Wageningen (Gattung)
Berggren, G. 1981: Atlas of seeds and small fruits of Northwest-European plant species with morphological descriptions. - Part 3 (Salicaceae-Cruciferaceae). Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm (Gattung)
Brouwer, W., Stählin, A. 1955: Handbuch der Samenkunde. DLG-Verlag, Frankfurt/Main (Gattung)
Müller, P. 1955: Verbreitungsbiologie (Diasporologie) der Blütenpflanzen. Veröffentlichungen des Geobotanischen Institutes Rübel Zürich . Verlag Hans Huber, Bern. (Gattung)
Peinado, M., Moreno, G. 1989: The genus Betula (Betulaceae) in the Sistema Central (Spain). Willdenowia 18:343-359 (Gattung)
 
group of traits: Ecological strategy »
Strategy type »
Strategy type cs (competitors/stress-tolerators)
 
group of traits: Range »
Floristic zone and altitudinal level »
Floristic zone p (southern temperate)
Altitudinal level m (montane)
Status natural range
Floristic zone n (northern temperate)
Altitudinal level m (montane)
Status natural range
Floristic zone b (boreal)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Floristic zone a (arctic)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Number of inhabited floristic zones »
Number of inhabited floristic zones 3
Oceanity »
Oceanity sk (subcontinental)
Amplitude of Oceanity: 3
Minimum level of oceantity: extreme central continental climate
Maximum level of oceantity: oceanic climate
Status natural range
Floristic region »
Floristic region e (Europe)
Continent of floristic region: e (Europa)
Status natural range
Floristic region ws (Western Siberia)
Continent of floristic region: a (Asien)
Status natural range
 
group of traits: Hemeroby »
Hemeroby »
Hemeroby a (ahemerobic)
Hemeroby o (oligohemerobic)
Number of hemerobic levels »
Number of hemerobic levels 2
 
group of traits: Urbanity »
Urbanity »
Urbanity 1 (urbanophobic)
 
group of traits: Habitats »
Habitat »
Habitat S1.3.2 (null)
Alliance: ???
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
 
group of traits: Sociology »
Class »
English circumscription 02.3 (Vaccinium Oxycoccus - Sphagnum mires)
Class: Oxycocco-Sphagnetea
English circumscription 08.2 (Arctic-alpine wind-exposed heathlands)
Class: Loiseleurio-Vaccinietea
English circumscription 10.8 (Boreal-continental coniferous forests with dwarf scrubs)
Class: Vaccinio-Piceetea
 
 
groups of traits for this species
Status »
Chromosome number »
Phylogeny »
Morphology »
Leaf traits »
Flowering phenology »
Floral and reproductive biology »
Seed traits »
Ecological strategy »
Range »
Hemeroby »
Urbanity »
Habitats »
Sociology »


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