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Overview of all traits of a species

species information (Systematics, BiolFlor-Names, Status)
BiolFlor-Name family german name(s)
Betula pubescens Ehrh. s. l. Betulaceae » Moor-Birke
reference
Kühn, I., Klotz, S. 2002: Systematik, Taxonomie und Nomenklatur. In: Klotz, S., Kühn, I., Durka, W. (Hrsg.): BIOLFLOR - Eine Datenbank mit biologisch-ökologischen Merkmalen zur Flora von Deutschland. Schriftenreihe für Vegetationskunde. Bonn »
 
Synonymy (taxonomy after Wisskirchen & Haeupler, 1998)
Betula pubescens Ehrh. accepted
Betula concinna Gunnarsson Synonym
Betula alba L., nom. utique rej. prop. (vide Govaerts 1996: Taxon 45: 697-698) Synonym
>Betula pubescens subsp. pubescens accepted
>Betula pubescens Ehrh., s. str. Synonym
>Betula pubescens subsp. carpatica (Waldst. & Kit. ex Willd.) Asch. & Graebn. accepted
>Betula carpatica Waldst. & Kit. ex Willd. Basionym
>Betula pubescens var. carpatica (Waldst. & Kit. ex Willd.) W. D. J. Koch Synonym
>Betula alba var. glabrata (Wahlenb.) Muñoz Garm. & Pedrol Synonym
>Betula pubescens var. glabrata Wahlenb. Synonym
 
group of traits: Status »
Floristic status »
Floristic status I (indigenous)
Evolutionary origin »
Evolutionary origin n (naturally)
Region of origin »
Region of origin 0 (not specified)
Endemism »
Endemism 0 (not specified)
Reference unbekannt
 
group of traits: Chromosome number »
Chromosome number »
Basic chromosome number 14
Chromosome number 2n 56
Chromosome number (Germany) True
Most common chromosome race False
Ploidy level 4 (tetraploid)
Ploidy type R (palaeopolyploid; polyploid basic number)
Reference Oberdorfer, E. 1983: Pflanzensoziologische Exkursionsflora. Ulmer, Stuttgart
 
group of traits: DNA content »
DNA content »
DNA content (pg/2C) 1.5
Chromosome number 28
Quality chromosome number known, but does not occur in Germany [n]
Authorised in BENNET & LEITCH 2001 True
Reference Bennett, M.D., Smith, J.S. 1991: Nuclear DNA amounts in angiosperms. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London B 334:309-345
 
group of traits: Phylogeny »
Phylogeny code »
Phylogeny code BBBBBBBBBABBBABBBBAABE
 
group of traits: Morphology »
Life form »
Life form M (Macrophanerophyte)
Qualifier always [1]
Life span »
Life span p (pluriennial-pollakanthic)
Qualifier always [1]
Rosettes »
Rosettes r (Erosulate plant)
Qualifier always [1]
special references:
Atkinson, M.D. 1992: Biological Flora of the British Isles: Betula pendula Roth. (Betula verrucosa Ehrh.) and Betula pubescens Ehrh.. Journal of Ecology 80:837-870
 
group of traits: Leaf traits »
Leaf persistence »
Leaf persistence s (summer green)
Leaf anatomy »
Leaf anatomy m (mesomorphic)
Leaf anatomy e (helomorphic)
Leaf form »
Leaf form norm (simple)
 
group of traits: Flowering phenology »
Flowering phenology »
Begin of flowering (months) 4
End of flowering (months) 5
Duration of flowering (months) 2
Number of flowering phases 0
Symphenological Groups »
Phenological group 3 (Prunus avium-Ranunculus auricomus-Phase)
Phenological season: end of early spring
Reference Dierschke, H 1995: Phänologische und symphänologische Artengruppen von Blütenpflanzen in Mitteleuropa. Tuexenia 15: 523-560
 
group of traits: Floral and reproductive biology »
Type of reproduction »
Type of reproduction s (by seed/by spore)
Reference Atkinson, M.D. 1992: Biological Flora of the British Isles: Betula pendula Roth. (Betula verrucosa Ehrh.) and Betula pubescens Ehrh.. Journal of Ecology 80:837-870
Type of seed production »
Type of seed production s (amphimictic, sexual)
Reference Bengt, J. (Hrsg.) 2000: Flora Nordica 1. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm
Dicliny »
Dicliny mo (monoecious)
Abundance always [1]
Reference Rothmaler, W. 1990: Exkursionsflora. Band 4, Kritischer Band. 8. Aufl., Verlag Volk und Wissen, Berlin
Dichogamy »
Dichogamy g2 (protogynous)
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Self-sterility and self-incompatibility »
Self-sterility and self-incompatibility SI (self-incompatibel)
Reference Holm, S.-O. 1994: Reproductive patterns in Betula pendula and B. pubescens coll. along a regional altitudinal gradient in northern Sweden. Ecography 17:60-72
Systematic reference species [S]
SI mechanism »
SI mechanism GSI (gametophytic self-incompatibility)
Reference de Nettancourt, D. 1977: Incompatibility in angiosperms. Springer, Berlin
Pollen vector »
Pollen vector wi (wind)
Pollen vector group: ab (abiotische Bestäubung)
Abundance always [1]
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Systematic reference species [S]
Breeding system »
Breeding system X (allogamous)
Reference Anmerkung 2002: xenogam, da SI
Floral rewards »
Floral rewards 1 (nectar)
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Amount of floral reward 1 (none)
Flower color »
Flower colour light brownish green
Basic flower colour gr (green)
Reference Schubert, R., Jäger, E.J., Werner, K. (Hrsg.) 1987: Exkursionsflora Band 3. Atlas der Gefäßpflanzen. 6. Aufl., Volk und Wissen, Berlin
Flower class after MUELLER »
Flower class after MUELLER W (wind flowers)
Typical pollinators: -
Flower type after KUGLER »
Flower type after KUGLER 0 (not applicable)
 
group of traits: Seed traits »
Fruit type »
Fruit type Nu (nut)
Diaspore type »
Diaspore type F (fruit)
Diaspore type FZb (fruit with appendage)
Germinule type »
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Germinule type F (fruit)
Information available True
Development of nutritious appendages  
Development of flat appendages always [1]
Development of elongated appendages  
Development of additional appendages  
Weights »
Measured object Germinule
Type of germinule or diaspore F (fruit)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Weight (minimum) [mg] 0.1
Weight (mean) [mg] 0.1
Weight (maximum) [mg] 0.3
Measured object Diaspore
Type of germinule or diaspore F (fruit)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Weight (minimum) [mg] 0.1
Weight (mean) [mg] 0.1
Weight (maximum) [mg] 0.3
Sizes »
Measured object Germinule
Type of germinule or diaspore F (fruit)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Length (minimum) [mm] 2.0
Length (mean) [mm] 3.1
Length (maximum) [mm] 4.0
Width (minimum) [mm] 2.0
Width (mean) [mm] 2.2
Width (maximum) [mm] 2.5
Height (minimum) [mm] 0.1
Height (mean) [mm] 0.2
Height (maximum) [mm] 0.3
Measured object Germinule
Type of germinule or diaspore F (fruit)
Constraint True
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Length (minimum) [mm] 1.4
Length (mean) [mm] 1.8
Length (maximum) [mm] 2.4
Width (minimum) [mm] 0.7
Width (mean) [mm] 0.9
Width (maximum) [mm] 1.4
Height (minimum) [mm] 0.1
Height (mean) [mm] 0.2
Height (maximum) [mm] 0.3
Measured object Diaspore
Type of germinule or diaspore F (fruit)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Length (minimum) [mm] 2.0
Length (mean) [mm] 3.1
Length (maximum) [mm] 4.0
Width (minimum) [mm] 2.0
Width (mean) [mm] 2.2
Width (maximum) [mm] 2.5
Height (minimum) [mm] 0.1
Height (mean) [mm] 0.2
Height (maximum) [mm] 0.3
special references:
Grime, J.P., Mason, G., Curtis, A.V., Rodman, J., Band, S.R., Mowforth, M.A., Neal, A.M., Shaw, S. 1981: A comparative study of germination characteristics in a local flora. Journal of Ecology 69:1017-1069 (Gattung)
Brzeziecki, B., Kienast, F. 1994: Classifying the life-history strategies of trees on the basis of the Grimian model. Forest Ecology and Management 69:167-187 (Gattung)
Atkinson, M.D. 1992: Biological Flora of the British Isles: Betula pendula Roth. (Betula verrucosa Ehrh.) and Betula pubescens Ehrh.. Journal of Ecology 80:837-870 (Gattung)
Beijerink, W. 1947: Zadenatlas der Nederlandsche Flora. Biol. Stat. Wijster, Wageningen (Gattung)
Berggren, G. 1981: Atlas of seeds and small fruits of Northwest-European plant species with morphological descriptions. - Part 3 (Salicaceae-Cruciferaceae). Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm (Gattung)
Brouwer, W., Stählin, A. 1955: Handbuch der Samenkunde. DLG-Verlag, Frankfurt/Main (Gattung)
Müller, P. 1955: Verbreitungsbiologie (Diasporologie) der Blütenpflanzen. Veröffentlichungen des Geobotanischen Institutes Rübel Zürich . Verlag Hans Huber, Bern. (Gattung)
Peinado, M., Moreno, G. 1989: The genus Betula (Betulaceae) in the Sistema Central (Spain). Willdenowia 18:343-359 (Gattung)
 
group of traits: Ecological strategy »
Strategy type »
Strategy type cs (competitors/stress-tolerators)
 
group of traits: Range »
Floristic zone and altitudinal level »
Floristic zone e (submeridional)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Floristic zone p (southern temperate)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Floristic zone n (northern temperate)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Floristic zone b (boreal)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Number of inhabited floristic zones »
Number of inhabited floristic zones 3
Floristic region »
Floristic region e (Europe)
Continent of floristic region: e (Europa)
Status natural range
Floristic region s (Siberia)
Continent of floristic region: a (Asien)
Status natural range
 
group of traits: Hemeroby »
Hemeroby »
Hemeroby o (oligohemerobic)
Hemeroby m (mesohemerobic)
Number of hemerobic levels »
Number of hemerobic levels 2
 
group of traits: Urbanity »
Urbanity »
Urbanity 1 (urbanophobic)
 
group of traits: Habitats »
Habitat »
Habitat S3.2.1 (null)
Alliance: Salicion cinereae
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
Habitat S3.2.2 (null)
Alliance: Betulion pubescentis
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
 
group of traits: Sociology »
Class »
English circumscription 07.4 (Communities of clear-felled areas)
Class: Epilobietea angustifolii
English circumscription 09.3 (Willow marsh shrublands)
Class: Carici-Salicetea cinereae
English circumscription 10.1 (Alder marsh woodlands)
Class: Alnetea glutinosae
English circumscription 10.8 (Boreal-continental coniferous forests with dwarf scrubs)
Class: Vaccinio-Piceetea
English circumscription 10.9 (Bog bilberry pine-forests)
Class: Vaccinio uliginosi-Pinetea
 
 
groups of traits for this species
Status »
Chromosome number »
DNA content »
Phylogeny »
Morphology »
Leaf traits »
Flowering phenology »
Floral and reproductive biology »
Seed traits »
Ecological strategy »
Range »
Hemeroby »
Urbanity »
Habitats »
Sociology »


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