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Overview of all traits of a species

species information (Systematics, BiolFlor-Names, Status)
BiolFlor-Name family german name(s)
Lychnis viscaria L. Caryophyllaceae » Pechnelke
reference
Kühn, I., Klotz, S. 2002: Systematik, Taxonomie und Nomenklatur. In: Klotz, S., Kühn, I., Durka, W. (Hrsg.): BIOLFLOR - Eine Datenbank mit biologisch-ökologischen Merkmalen zur Flora von Deutschland. Schriftenreihe für Vegetationskunde. Bonn »
 
Synonymy (taxonomy after Wisskirchen & Haeupler, 1998)
Lychnis viscaria L. Basionym
Lychnis viscaria subsp. viscaria Synonym
Silene viscaria (L.) Borkh. accepted
Viscaria vulgaris Bernh. Synonym
 
group of traits: Status »
Floristic status »
Floristic status I (indigenous)
Evolutionary origin »
Evolutionary origin n (naturally)
Region of origin »
Region of origin 0 (not specified)
Endemism »
Endemism 0 (not specified)
Reference unbekannt
 
group of traits: Chromosome number »
Chromosome number »
Basic chromosome number 12
Chromosome number 2n 24
Chromosome number (Germany) True
Most common chromosome race False
Ploidy level 2 (diploid)
Ploidy type R (palaeopolyploid; polyploid basic number)
Reference Oberdorfer, E. 1983: Pflanzensoziologische Exkursionsflora. Ulmer, Stuttgart
 
group of traits: Phylogeny »
Phylogeny code »
Phylogeny code BBBBBBBBBBBBBAABBBBAAA
 
group of traits: Morphology »
Life form »
Life form H (Hemicryptophyte)
Qualifier always [1]
Life span »
Life span p (pluriennial-pollakanthic)
Qualifier always [1]
Vegetative propagation »
Vegetative propagation rp (Rhizome-like pleiocorm)
Qualifier always [1]
Storage organs »
Storage organs rp (Rhizome-like pleiocorm)
Qualifier always [1]
Shoot metamorphoses »
Shoot metamorphoses rp (Rhizome-like pleiocorm)
Qualifier always [1]
Rosettes »
Rosettes h (Hemirosette plant)
Qualifier always [1]
special references:
Wilson, G.B., Wright, J., Lusby, P., Whittington, W.J., Humphries, R.N. 1995: Biological Flora of the British Isles: Lychnis viscaria L. (Viscaria vulgaris Bernh.). Journal of Ecology 83:1039-1051
Golubev, V.N. 1957: Materialy k ekologo-morfologiceskoj i geneticeskoj charakteristikje zhizjennych form travjanistych rastenij. Botaniceskij Zhurnal 42:1055-1072
Kästner, A., Karrer, G. 1995: Übersicht der Wuchsformentypen als Grundlage für deren Erfassung in der "Flora von Österreich". Florae Austriacae Novit. 3:1-51
Kutschera, L., Lichtenegger, E. 1992: Wurzelatlas mitteleuropäischer Grünlandpflanzen. Bd. 2 Pteridophyta und Dicotyledonae (Magnoliopsida). Teil I Morphologie, Anatomie, Ökologie, Verbreitung, Soziologie, Wirtschaft. Fischer, Stuttgart, Jena, New York
Raunkiaer, C. 1934: The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford
 
group of traits: Leaf traits »
Leaf persistence »
Leaf persistence s (summer green)
Leaf anatomy »
Leaf anatomy s (scleromorphic)
Leaf anatomy m (mesomorphic)
Leaf form »
Leaf form lang (long-leaf)
 
group of traits: Flowering phenology »
Flowering phenology »
Begin of flowering (months) 5
End of flowering (months) 7
Duration of flowering (months) 3
Number of flowering phases 0
Symphenological Groups »
Phenological group 6 (Cornus sanguinea-Melica uniflora-Phase)
Phenological season: start of early summer
Reference Dierschke, H 1995: Phänologische und symphänologische Artengruppen von Blütenpflanzen in Mitteleuropa. Tuexenia 15: 523-560
 
group of traits: Floral and reproductive biology »
Type of reproduction »
Type of reproduction s (by seed/by spore)
Reference Wilson, G.B., Wright, J., Lusby, P., Whittington, W.J., Humphries, R.N. 1995: Biological Flora of the British Isles: Lychnis viscaria L. (Viscaria vulgaris Bernh.). Journal of Ecology 83:1039-1051
Type of seed production »
Type of seed production s (amphimictic, sexual)
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Dicliny »
Dicliny so (hermaphroditic)
Abundance the rule [2]
Reference Wilson, G.B., Wright, J., Lusby, P., Whittington, W.J., Humphries, R.N. 1995: Biological Flora of the British Isles: Lychnis viscaria L. (Viscaria vulgaris Bernh.). Journal of Ecology 83:1039-1051
Dicliny gm (gynomonoecious)
Abundance rare [4]
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Dicliny gd (gynodioecious)
Abundance rare [4]
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Dicliny am (andromonoecious)
Abundance rare [4]
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Dicliny ad (androdioecious)
Abundance rare [4]
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Dichogamy »
Dichogamy h (homogamous)
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Dichogamy a2 (protandrous)
Reference Wilson, G.B., Wright, J., Lusby, P., Whittington, W.J., Humphries, R.N. 1995: Biological Flora of the British Isles: Lychnis viscaria L. (Viscaria vulgaris Bernh.). Journal of Ecology 83:1039-1051
Self-sterility and self-incompatibility »
Self-sterility and self-incompatibility SC (self-compatibel)
Reference Burd, M. 1994: Batemans¿s principle and plant reproduction: the role of pollen limitation in fruit and seed set. The Botanical Review 60:83-139
Systematic reference species [S]
Self-sterility and self-incompatibility I+ (± self-incompatibel)
Reference Wilson, G.B., Wright, J., Lusby, P., Whittington, W.J., Humphries, R.N. 1995: Biological Flora of the British Isles: Lychnis viscaria L. (Viscaria vulgaris Bernh.). Journal of Ecology 83:1039-1051
Systematic reference species [S]
Pollen vector »
Pollen vector se (selfing)
Pollen vector group: se (Selbstbestäubung)
Abundance possible [5]
Reference Wilson, G.B., Wright, J., Lusby, P., Whittington, W.J., Humphries, R.N. 1995: Biological Flora of the British Isles: Lychnis viscaria L. (Viscaria vulgaris Bernh.). Journal of Ecology 83:1039-1051
Systematic reference species [S]
Pollen vector in (insects)
Pollen vector group: zo (Tierbestäubung)
Abundance the rule [2]
Reference Wilson, G.B., Wright, J., Lusby, P., Whittington, W.J., Humphries, R.N. 1995: Biological Flora of the British Isles: Lychnis viscaria L. (Viscaria vulgaris Bernh.). Journal of Ecology 83:1039-1051
Systematic reference species [S]
Breeding system »
Breeding system XF (facultative allogamous)
Reference Wilson, G.B., Wright, J., Lusby, P., Whittington, W.J., Humphries, R.N. 1995: Biological Flora of the British Isles: Lychnis viscaria L. (Viscaria vulgaris Bernh.). Journal of Ecology 83:1039-1051
P/O ratio »
P/O ratio 206.0
Reference Jürgens, A. 1998: Blütenmorphologie, Reproduktionssysteme und Blütendüfte von Silene-, Dianthus, Saponaria-, Agrostemma-, und Vaccaria-Arten (Caryophyllaceae). Diss. Univ. Ulm
Floral rewards »
Floral rewards 1 (nectar)
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Amount of floral reward 3 (present)
Flower color »
Flower colour purple
Basic flower colour pu (purple)
Reference Schubert, R., Jäger, E.J., Werner, K. (Hrsg.) 1987: Exkursionsflora Band 3. Atlas der Gefäßpflanzen. 6. Aufl., Volk und Wissen, Berlin
UV reflection of the flower »
UV reflection in the periphery of the flower 2 (8-15 %)
UV reflection in the centre of the flower 2 (8-15 %)
UV reflection pattern 0 (no UV reflectance patterns)
Flower class after MUELLER »
Flower class after MUELLER Ft (butterfly flowers)
Typical pollinators: butterflies
Flower type after KUGLER »
Flower type after KUGLER 4.2 (stalk disc flowers, stamina and pistil outside tube)
 
group of traits: Seed traits »
Fruit type »
Fruit type Ka (capsule)
Diaspore type »
Diaspore type S (seed)
Germinule type »
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Germinule type S (seed)
Information available True
Development of nutritious appendages  
Development of flat appendages  
Development of elongated appendages  
Development of additional appendages  
Weights »
Measured object Diaspore
Type of germinule or diaspore S (seed)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Weight (minimum) [mg] 0.1
Weight (mean) [mg] 0.1
Weight (maximum) [mg] 0.1
Measured object Germinule
Type of germinule or diaspore S (seed)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Weight (minimum) [mg] 0.1
Weight (mean) [mg] 0.1
Weight (maximum) [mg] 0.1
Sizes »
Measured object Germinule
Type of germinule or diaspore S (seed)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Length (minimum) [mm] 0.4
Length (mean) [mm] 0.6
Length (maximum) [mm] 0.7
Width (minimum) [mm] 0.3
Width (mean) [mm] 0.5
Width (maximum) [mm] 0.6
Height (minimum) [mm] 0.2
Height (mean) [mm] 0.3
Height (maximum) [mm] 0.4
Measured object Diaspore
Type of germinule or diaspore S (seed)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Length (minimum) [mm] 0.4
Length (mean) [mm] 0.6
Length (maximum) [mm] 0.7
Width (minimum) [mm] 0.3
Width (mean) [mm] 0.5
Width (maximum) [mm] 0.6
Height (minimum) [mm] 0.2
Height (mean) [mm] 0.3
Height (maximum) [mm] 0.4
special references:
Wilson, G.B., Wright, J., Lusby, P., Whittington, W.J., Humphries, R.N. 1995: Biological Flora of the British Isles: Lychnis viscaria L. (Viscaria vulgaris Bernh.). Journal of Ecology 83:1039-1051 (Gattung)
Beijerink, W. 1947: Zadenatlas der Nederlandsche Flora. Biol. Stat. Wijster, Wageningen (Gattung)
Berggren, G. 1981: Atlas of seeds and small fruits of Northwest-European plant species with morphological descriptions. - Part 3 (Salicaceae-Cruciferaceae). Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm (Gattung)
Brouwer, W., Stählin, A. 1955: Handbuch der Samenkunde. DLG-Verlag, Frankfurt/Main (Gattung)
Stockey, A., Hunt, R. 1994: Predicting secondary succession in wetland mesocosms on the basis of autecological information on seeds and seedlings. Journal of Applied Ecology 31:543-559 (Gattung)
 
group of traits: Ecological strategy »
Strategy type »
Strategy type csr (competitors/stress-tolerators/ruderals)
 
group of traits: Indicator values for grassland species »
Grassland utilization indicator values »
Occurrence GE (little used grasslands)
Guild K (forb)
Mowing tolerance 3 (sensitive to mowing)
Grazing tolerance 2 (between 1 and 3 (intolerant to sensitive to grazing))
Trampling tolerance 2 (between 1 and 3 (intolerant to sensitive to trampling))
Foraging value 2 (no or little forage value)
Foraging value for deer  
 
group of traits: Range »
Floristic zone and altitudinal level »
Floristic zone e (submeridional)
Altitudinal level m (montane)
Status natural range
Floristic zone p (southern temperate)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Floristic zone n (northern temperate)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Floristic zone b (boreal)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Number of inhabited floristic zones »
Number of inhabited floristic zones 3
Oceanity »
Oceanity so (suboceanic)
Amplitude of Oceanity: 3
Minimum level of oceantity: continental climate
Maximum level of oceantity: extreme oceanic climate
Status natural range
Floristic region »
Floristic region e (Europe)
Continent of floristic region: e (Europa)
Status natural range
Floristic region ws (Western Siberia)
Continent of floristic region: a (Asien)
Status natural range
 
group of traits: Hemeroby »
Hemeroby »
Hemeroby o (oligohemerobic)
Hemeroby m (mesohemerobic)
Number of hemerobic levels »
Number of hemerobic levels 2
 
group of traits: Urbanity »
Urbanity »
Urbanity 1 (urbanophobic)
 
group of traits: Habitats »
Habitat »
Habitat T1.1.2.5 (null)
Alliance: Quercion robori-petraeae
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
Habitat T6.2.1 (null)
Alliance: ???
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
 
group of traits: Sociology »
Class »
English circumscription 05.2 (Pioneer communities of hair-grasses)
Class: Koelerio-Corynephoretea
English circumscription 05.3 (Fescue-brome communities of dry and semi-dry grasslands)
Class: Festuco-Brometea
English circumscription 05.4 (Commercially used grasslands)
Class: Molinio-Arrhenatheretea
English circumscription 07.1 (Thermophilous and mesophilous forest grassland ecotones)
Class: Trifolio-Geranietea sanguinei
English circumscription 07.4 (Communities of clear-felled areas)
Class: Epilobietea angustifolii
English circumscription 10.3 (Birch-oak forests)
Class: Quercetea robori-petraeae
English circumscription 10.4 (Thermophilous dry oak forests)
Class: Quercetea pubescentis-petraeae
 
 
groups of traits for this species
Status »
Chromosome number »
Phylogeny »
Morphology »
Leaf traits »
Flowering phenology »
Floral and reproductive biology »
Seed traits »
Ecological strategy »
Indicator values for grassland species »
Range »
Hemeroby »
Urbanity »
Habitats »
Sociology »


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