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Overview of all traits of a species

species information (Systematics, BiolFlor-Names, Status)
BiolFlor-Name family german name(s)
Poa pratensis L. s. str. Poaceae » Gewöhnliches Wiesen-Rispengras
reference
Kühn, I., Klotz, S. 2002: Systematik, Taxonomie und Nomenklatur. In: Klotz, S., Kühn, I., Durka, W. (Hrsg.): BIOLFLOR - Eine Datenbank mit biologisch-ökologischen Merkmalen zur Flora von Deutschland. Schriftenreihe für Vegetationskunde. Bonn »
 
Synonymy (taxonomy after Wisskirchen & Haeupler, 1998)
Poa pratensis L. accepted
Poa pratensis subsp. lejeunei Dumort. Synonym
Poa pratensis var. lejeunei (Dumort.) Asch. & Graebn. Synonym
Poa pratensis subsp. pratensis Synonym
<Poa pratensis agg. accepted
<Poa pratensis - group Synonym
<Poa pratensis 'Sammelart' Synonym
<Poa pratensis L., s. l. Synonym
 
group of traits: Status »
Floristic status »
Floristic status I (indigenous)
Evolutionary origin »
Evolutionary origin n (naturally)
Region of origin »
Region of origin 0 (not specified)
Endemism »
Endemism 0 (not specified)
Reference unbekannt
 
group of traits: Chromosome number »
Chromosome number »
Basic chromosome number 7
Chromosome number 2n 28
Chromosome number (Germany) True
Most common chromosome race False
Ploidy level  
Ploidy type  
Reference Oberdorfer, E. 1983: Pflanzensoziologische Exkursionsflora. Ulmer, Stuttgart
Basic chromosome number 7
Chromosome number 2n 42
Chromosome number (Germany) True
Most common chromosome race False
Ploidy level  
Ploidy type P (polyploid with haploid basic number)
Reference Oberdorfer, E. 1983: Pflanzensoziologische Exkursionsflora. Ulmer, Stuttgart
Basic chromosome number 7
Chromosome number 2n 42
Chromosome number (Germany) False
Most common chromosome race False
Ploidy level 6 (hexaploid)
Ploidy type P (polyploid with haploid basic number)
Reference Oberdorfer, E. 1983: Pflanzensoziologische Exkursionsflora. Ulmer, Stuttgart
 
group of traits: DNA content »
DNA content »
DNA content (pg/2C) 10.8
Chromosome number 84
Quality chromosome number known and occurring in Germany [b]
Authorised in BENNET & LEITCH 2001 True
Reference Bennett, M.D., Smith, J.P., Heslop-Harrison, J.S. 1982: Nuclear DNA amounts in angiosperms. Proceedings of the Royal Society London. Series B 216:179-199
 
group of traits: Phylogeny »
Phylogeny code »
Phylogeny code BBBBBABBBBAAABBAAAAABAAAGA
 
group of traits: Morphology »
Life form »
Life form H (Hemicryptophyte)
Qualifier always [1]
Life span »
Life span p (pluriennial-pollakanthic)
Qualifier always [1]
Vegetative propagation »
Vegetative propagation a (Runner)
Qualifier always [1]
Storage organs »
Storage organs a (Runner)
Qualifier always [1]
Shoot metamorphoses »
Shoot metamorphoses a (Runner)
Qualifier always [1]
Rosettes »
Rosettes h (Hemirosette plant)
Qualifier always [1]
special references:
Gustafsson, A. 1948: Polyploidy, life-form and vegetative reproduction. Hereditas 34:1-22
Hensen, I. 1997: Life strategies of xerothermic grasslands - mechanisms of reproduction and colonization within Stipetum capillatae s.l. and Adonido-Brachypodietum pinnati. Feddes Repertorium 108:425-452
Mühlberg, H. 1965: Wuchsformenstudien in der Familie Poaceae. Die Wuchsformen der mitteldeutschen Poa-Arten. Feddes Repertorium 71:188-217
Troughton, A. 1957: The underground organs of herbage grasses. Bull. Commonw. Bur. Past. Fld. Crops 44:1-163
Evans, M.W., Ely, J.E. 1935: The rhizomes of certain species of grasses. J. Am. Soc. Agr. 27:791-797
Ebel, F., Mühlberg, H. 1987: Vergleichend-ökomorphologische Untersuchungen an Pflanzen-Taxa eines Trocken- und Feuchtbiotops. Hercynia N. F. 24:408-424
Briemle, G., Schreiber, K.F. 1994: Zur Frage der Beeinflussung pflanzlicher Lebens- und Wuchsformen durch unterschiedliche Landschaftspflegemaßnahmen. Tuexenia 14:229-244
Mühlberg, H. 1967: Die Wuchstypen mitteleuropäischer Poaceen. Hercynia N. F. 4:11-50
 
group of traits: Leaf traits »
Leaf persistence »
Leaf persistence i (persistent green)
Leaf anatomy »
Leaf anatomy m (mesomorphic)
Leaf form »
Leaf form gras (grass-like)
 
group of traits: Flowering phenology »
Flowering phenology »
Begin of flowering (months) 5
End of flowering (months) 6
Duration of flowering (months) 2
Number of flowering phases 0
Symphenological Groups »
Phenological group 6 (Cornus sanguinea-Melica uniflora-Phase)
Phenological season: start of early summer
Reference Dierschke, H 1995: Phänologische und symphänologische Artengruppen von Blütenpflanzen in Mitteleuropa. Tuexenia 15: 523-560
 
group of traits: Floral and reproductive biology »
Type of reproduction »
Type of reproduction sv (by seed and vegetatively)
Reference Krumbiegel, A. 2002: Morphologie der vegetativen Organe (außer Blätter). In: Klotz, S., Kühn, I., Durka, W. (Hrsg.) BiolFlor - Biologisch-ökologische Daten zur Flora Deutschlands, S. 1-2, Bonn
Type of seed production »
Type of seed production f (facultativ apomictic)
Reference Conert, H.J. 1979: Poaceae. In: Hegi, G.B. (Hrsg.) Illustrierte Flora von Mitteleuropa, 1(3), S. 1-843, Parey, Berlin
Type of apomixis »
Type of apomixis p (pseudogamous)
Reference Connor, H.E. 1979: Breeding system in the grasses: a survey. New Zealand Journal of Botany 17:547-574
Dicliny »
Dicliny so (hermaphroditic)
Abundance always [1]
Reference Connor, H.E. 1979: Breeding system in the grasses: a survey. New Zealand Journal of Botany 17:547-574
Dichogamy »
Dichogamy h (homogamous)
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Self-sterility and self-incompatibility »
Self-sterility and self-incompatibility SC (self-compatibel)
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Systematic reference genus [G]
Self-sterility and self-incompatibility C+ (± self-compatibel)
Reference Nilsson, F. 1934: Studies in fertility and inbreeding in some herbage grasses. Hereditas 19:1-162
Systematic reference species [S]
Pollen vector »
Pollen vector wi (wind)
Pollen vector group: ab (abiotische Bestäubung)
Abundance the rule [2]
Reference Fryxell, P.M. 1957: Modes of reproduction of higher plants. The Botanical Review 23:135-233
Systematic reference species [S]
Pollen vector se (selfing)
Pollen vector group: se (Selbstbestäubung)
Abundance often [3]
Reference Anmerkung 2002: pers. obs.
Systematic reference species [S]
Breeding system »
Breeding system AFXF (mixed mating)
Reference Anmerkung 2002: vgl. Klassifizierungsschema Abb.
Flower class after MUELLER »
Flower class after MUELLER W (wind flowers)
Typical pollinators: -
Flower type after KUGLER »
Flower type after KUGLER 0 (not applicable)
 
group of traits: Seed traits »
Fruit type »
Fruit type Nu (nut)
Diaspore type »
Diaspore type FZb (fruit with appendage)
Germinule type »
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Germinule type F (fruit)
Information available True
Development of nutritious appendages  
Development of flat appendages  
Development of elongated appendages  
Development of additional appendages  
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Germinule type FZb (fruit with appendage)
Information available False
Development of nutritious appendages  
Development of flat appendages sometimes [2]
Development of elongated appendages sometimes [2]
Development of additional appendages always [1]
Weights »
Measured object Germinule
Type of germinule or diaspore F (fruit)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Weight (minimum) [mg] 0.2
Weight (mean) [mg] 0.3
Weight (maximum) [mg] 0.3
Measured object Germinule
Type of germinule or diaspore FZb (fruit with appendage)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Weight (minimum) [mg] 0.2
Weight (mean) [mg] 0.3
Weight (maximum) [mg] 0.4
Measured object Diaspore
Type of germinule or diaspore FZb (fruit with appendage)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Weight (minimum) [mg] 0.2
Weight (mean) [mg] 0.3
Weight (maximum) [mg] 0.4
Sizes »
Measured object Germinule
Type of germinule or diaspore F (fruit)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Length (minimum) [mm] 1.2
Length (mean) [mm] 1.6
Length (maximum) [mm] 2.0
Width (minimum) [mm] 0.4
Width (mean) [mm] 0.5
Width (maximum) [mm] 0.6
Height (minimum) [mm] 0.3
Height (mean) [mm] 0.3
Height (maximum) [mm] 0.4
Measured object Diaspore
Type of germinule or diaspore FZb (fruit with appendage)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Length (minimum) [mm] 2.2
Length (mean) [mm] 3.0
Length (maximum) [mm] 4.0
Width (minimum) [mm] 0.6
Width (mean) [mm] 0.8
Width (maximum) [mm] 1.0
Height (minimum) [mm] 0.3
Height (mean) [mm] 0.5
Height (maximum) [mm] 0.8
Measured object Germinule
Type of germinule or diaspore FZb (fruit with appendage)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Length (minimum) [mm] 2.2
Length (mean) [mm] 3.0
Length (maximum) [mm] 4.0
Width (minimum) [mm] 0.6
Width (mean) [mm] 0.8
Width (maximum) [mm] 1.0
Height (minimum) [mm] 0.3
Height (mean) [mm] 0.5
Height (maximum) [mm] 0.8
special references:
Grime, J.P., Mason, G., Curtis, A.V., Rodman, J., Band, S.R., Mowforth, M.A., Neal, A.M., Shaw, S. 1981: A comparative study of germination characteristics in a local flora. Journal of Ecology 69:1017-1069 (Gattung)
Müller-Schneider, P. 1986: Verbreitungsbiologie der Blütenpflanzen Graubündens. Veröffentlichungen des Geobotanischen Institutes der ETH, Stiftung Rübel, Zürich 85:1-261 (Gattung)
Thompson, K., Band, S.R., Hodgson, J.G. 1993: Seed size and shape predict persistence in soil. Functional Ecology 7:236-241 (Gattung)
Grime, J.P., Hodgson, J.G., Hunt, R. 1988: Comparative Plant Ecology. Unwin Hyman, London (Gattung)
Briemle, G. 1996: Farbatlas Kräuter und Gräser. Ulmer, Stuttgart (Gattung)
Hensen, I., Müller, C. 1997: Experimental and structural investigations of anemochorous dispersal. Plant Ecology 133:169-180 (Gattung)
Hutchinson, C.S., Seymour, G.B. 1982: Biological Flora of the British Isles: Poa annua L.. Journal of Ecology 70:887-901 (Gattung)
Bakker, J.P., Bakker, E.S., Rosén, E., Verweij, G.L. 1997: The soil seed bank of undisturbed and disturbed dry limestone grassland on Öland (Sweden). Z. Ökologie Nat. sch. 6:9-18 (Gattung)
Böttner, I., Frey, W., Hensen, I. 1997: Carex humilis-Gesellschaft im unteren Unstruttal (mitteldeutsches Trockengebiet) - Lebensstrategien einer xerothermen Vegetationseinheit. Feddes Repertorium 108:7; 583-8; 602 (Gattung)
Brouwer, W., Stählin, A. 1955: Handbuch der Samenkunde. DLG-Verlag, Frankfurt/Main (Gattung)
Cremer, J., Partzsch, M., Zimmermann, M., Schwär, C., Goltz, H. 1991: Acker- und Gartenwildkräuter: ein Bestimmungsbuch. . Deutscher Landwirtschaftsverlag, Berlin. (Gattung)
Frey, W., Hauser, A. 1996: Onopordetum acanthii (Eselsdistel-Gesellschaft) im mittleren und unteren Unstruttal - Lebensstrategien in einer wärmeliebenden Ruderalgesellschaft. Hausknechtia, Beiheft 6:1-84 (Gattung)
Häfliger, T.J., Scholz, H. 1981: Grass weeds. Documenta CIBA-GEIGY Ltd., Basel (Gattung)
Kaltofen, H., Schrader, A. 1991: Gräser. Biologie - Bestimmung - Wirtschaftliche Bedeutung. DVL, Berlin (Gattung)
Luftensteiner, H.W. 1982: Untersuchungen zur Verbreitungssbiologie von Pflanzengemeinschaften an vier Standorten in Niederösterreich. Bibliotheca Botanica 135:1-68 (Gattung)
Heinisch, O. 1955: Samenatlas der wichtigsten Futterpflanzen und ihrer Unkräuter. Deutsche Akad. Landwirtsch.-Wiss., Berlin (Gattung)
Rudnicka-Sterna,W. 1972: Systematic studies on morphology and anatomy of the caryopsis of the Poa L. species in Poland. Monographiae Botanicae 37: 51-103 (Gattung)
 
group of traits: Ecological strategy »
Strategy type »
Strategy type c (competitors)
 
group of traits: Indicator values for grassland species »
Grassland utilization indicator values »
Occurrence GW (commercial grasslands)
Guild G (grass)
Mowing tolerance 9 (very tolerant to mowing)
Grazing tolerance 8 (between 7 and 9 (well tolerant to very tolerant to grazing))
Trampling tolerance 8 (between 7 and 9 (well tolerant to very tolerant to trampling))
Foraging value 9 (best forage value)
Foraging value for deer 9 (best forage value)
 
group of traits: Range »
Floristic zone and altitudinal level »
Floristic zone m (meridional)
Altitudinal level m (montane)
Status natural range
Floristic zone e (submeridional)
Altitudinal level m (montane)
Status natural range
Floristic zone p (southern temperate)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Floristic zone n (northern temperate)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Floristic zone b (boreal)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Number of inhabited floristic zones »
Number of inhabited floristic zones 4
Floristic region »
Floristic region c (circumpolar)
Continent of floristic region: c (circumpolar)
Status natural range
 
group of traits: Hemeroby »
Hemeroby »
Hemeroby m (mesohemerobic)
Hemeroby b (b-euhemerobic)
Hemeroby c (a-euhemerobic)
Number of hemerobic levels »
Number of hemerobic levels 3
 
group of traits: Urbanity »
Urbanity »
Urbanity 3 (urbanoneutral)
 
group of traits: Habitats »
Habitat »
Habitat T6.2.2.2.3 (null)
Alliance: Bromion erecti
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
 
group of traits: Sociology »
Class »
English circumscription 05.3 (Fescue-brome communities of dry and semi-dry grasslands)
Class: Festuco-Brometea
English circumscription 05.4 (Commercially used grasslands)
Class: Molinio-Arrhenatheretea
English circumscription 06.5 (Eusiberian ruderal mugwort and thistles communities, and couch-grasslands)
Class: Artemisietea vulgaris
English circumscription 10.3 (Birch-oak forests)
Class: Quercetea robori-petraeae
 
 
groups of traits for this species
Status »
Chromosome number »
DNA content »
Phylogeny »
Morphology »
Leaf traits »
Flowering phenology »
Floral and reproductive biology »
Seed traits »
Ecological strategy »
Indicator values for grassland species »
Range »
Hemeroby »
Urbanity »
Habitats »
Sociology »


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