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Overview of all traits of a species

species information (Systematics, BiolFlor-Names, Status)
BiolFlor-Name family german name(s)
Primula veris L. Primulaceae » Echte Schlüsselblume
Wiesen-Schlüsselblume
reference
Kühn, I., Klotz, S. 2002: Systematik, Taxonomie und Nomenklatur. In: Klotz, S., Kühn, I., Durka, W. (Hrsg.): BIOLFLOR - Eine Datenbank mit biologisch-ökologischen Merkmalen zur Flora von Deutschland. Schriftenreihe für Vegetationskunde. Bonn »
 
Synonymy (taxonomy after Wisskirchen & Haeupler, 1998)
Primula veris L. accepted
Primula veris subsp. canescens (Opiz) Lüdi Synonym
Primula veris subsp. suaveolens (Bertol.) Gutermann & Ehrend. Synonym
Primula columnae subsp. suaveolens (Bertol.) O. Schwarz Synonym
Primula officinalis (L.) Hill Synonym
Primula officinalis var. canescens Opiz Synonym
Primula suaveolens Bertol. Synonym
Primula veris subsp. genuina (Pax) Lüdi Synonym
Primula veris var. officinalis L. Synonym
Primula veris var. genuina Pax Synonym
 
group of traits: Status »
Floristic status »
Floristic status I (indigenous)
Evolutionary origin »
Evolutionary origin n (naturally)
Region of origin »
Region of origin 0 (not specified)
Endemism »
Endemism 0 (not specified)
Reference unbekannt
 
group of traits: Chromosome number »
Chromosome number »
Basic chromosome number 11
Chromosome number 2n 22
Chromosome number (Germany) True
Most common chromosome race False
Ploidy level 2 (diploid)
Ploidy type R (palaeopolyploid; polyploid basic number)
Reference Oberdorfer, E. 1983: Pflanzensoziologische Exkursionsflora. Ulmer, Stuttgart
 
group of traits: Phylogeny »
Phylogeny code »
Phylogeny code BBBBBBBBBABABABBABABAABBB
 
group of traits: Morphology »
Life form »
Life form H (Hemicryptophyte)
Qualifier always [1]
Life span »
Life span p (pluriennial-pollakanthic)
Qualifier always [1]
Vegetative propagation »
Vegetative propagation rh (Rhizome)
Qualifier always [1]
Storage organs »
Storage organs rh (Rhizome)
Qualifier always [1]
Shoot metamorphoses »
Shoot metamorphoses rh (Rhizome)
Qualifier always [1]
Rosettes »
Rosettes g (Rosette plant)
Qualifier always [1]
special references:
Tamm, C.O. 1948: Observations on reproduction of some perennial herbs. Botaniska Notiser 101:305-321
Barkham, J.P. 1980: Population dynamics of the wild daffodil (Narcissus pseudonarcissus). I. Clonal growth, seed reproduction, mortality and the effects of density. Journal of Ecology 68:607-633
Lukasiewicz, A. 1962: Morfologizno-rozwojowe typy bylin (Morphologic development types of perennials). The Poznan Soc. of Friends of Science. Dept. math. -nat. Sci. Publ. Ser. Biol. (Posen) 27:1-398
Briemle, G., Schreiber, K.F. 1994: Zur Frage der Beeinflussung pflanzlicher Lebens- und Wuchsformen durch unterschiedliche Landschaftspflegemaßnahmen. Tuexenia 14:229-244
Kutschera, L., Lichtenegger, E. 1992: Wurzelatlas mitteleuropäischer Grünlandpflanzen. Bd. 2 Pteridophyta und Dicotyledonae (Magnoliopsida). Teil I Morphologie, Anatomie, Ökologie, Verbreitung, Soziologie, Wirtschaft. Fischer, Stuttgart, Jena, New York
Raunkiaer, C. 1934: The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford
Salisbury, E. 1952: Downs and dunes. Their plant life and its environment. Bells & Sons, London
Irmisch, T. 1850: Zur Morphologie der monokotylischen Knollen- und Zwiebelgewächse. Berlin
 
group of traits: Leaf traits »
Leaf persistence »
Leaf persistence s (summer green)
Leaf anatomy »
Leaf anatomy m (mesomorphic)
Leaf form »
Leaf form norm (simple)
 
group of traits: Flowering phenology »
Flowering phenology »
Begin of flowering (months) 4
End of flowering (months) 6
Duration of flowering (months) 3
Number of flowering phases 0
Symphenological Groups »
Phenological group 2 (Acer platanoides-Anemone nemorosa-Phase)
Phenological season: start of early spring
Reference Dierschke, H 1995: Phänologische und symphänologische Artengruppen von Blütenpflanzen in Mitteleuropa. Tuexenia 15: 523-560
 
group of traits: Floral and reproductive biology »
Type of reproduction »
Type of reproduction sv (by seed and vegetatively)
Reference Krumbiegel, A. 2002: Morphologie der vegetativen Organe (außer Blätter). In: Klotz, S., Kühn, I., Durka, W. (Hrsg.) BiolFlor - Biologisch-ökologische Daten zur Flora Deutschlands, S. 1-2, Bonn
Type of seed production »
Type of seed production s (amphimictic, sexual)
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Dicliny »
Dicliny so (hermaphroditic)
Abundance always [1]
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Dichogamy »
Dichogamy h (homogamous)
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Heterostyly »
Heterostyly d (distylous)
Hetero/homostyly: e
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Self-sterility and self-incompatibility »
Self-sterility and self-incompatibility I+ (± self-incompatibel)
Reference Brieger, F. 1930: Selbststerilität und Kreuzungssterilität im Pflanzenreich und Tierreich. Springer, Berlin
Systematic reference species [S]
Self-sterility and self-incompatibility SI (self-incompatibel)
Reference Kéry, M., Matthies, D., Spillmann, H.H. 2000: Reduced fecundity and offspring performance in small populations of the declining grassland plants Primula veris and Gentiana lutea. Journal of Ecology 88:17-30
Systematic reference species [S]
SI mechanism »
SI mechanism HSI (heteromorphic self-incompatibility)
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Pollen vector »
Pollen vector in (insects)
Pollen vector group: zo (Tierbestäubung)
Abundance always [1]
Reference Kéry, M., Matthies, D., Spillmann, H.H. 2000: Reduced fecundity and offspring performance in small populations of the declining grassland plants Primula veris and Gentiana lutea. Journal of Ecology 88:17-30
Systematic reference species [S]
Breeding system »
Breeding system X (allogamous)
Reference Kéry, M., Matthies, D., Spillmann, H.H. 2000: Reduced fecundity and offspring performance in small populations of the declining grassland plants Primula veris and Gentiana lutea. Journal of Ecology 88:17-30
Floral rewards »
Floral rewards 1 (nectar)
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Amount of floral reward 3 (present)
Flower color »
Flower colour yolk yellow
Basic flower colour g (yellow)
Reference Schubert, R., Jäger, E.J., Werner, K. (Hrsg.) 1987: Exkursionsflora Band 3. Atlas der Gefäßpflanzen. 6. Aufl., Volk und Wissen, Berlin
UV reflection of the flower »
UV reflection in the periphery of the flower 1 (0-7 %)
UV reflection in the centre of the flower 1 (0-7 %)
UV reflection pattern 0 (no UV reflectance patterns)
Flower class after MUELLER »
Flower class after MUELLER HhFt (transition type bumble bee flowers - butterfly flowers)
Typical pollinators: bumblebees, butterfflies
Flower type after KUGLER »
Flower type after KUGLER 4.1 (stalk disc flowers, stamina and pistil within tube)
 
group of traits: Seed traits »
Fruit type »
Fruit type Ka (capsule)
Diaspore type »
Diaspore type S (seed)
Germinule type »
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Germinule type S (seed)
Information available True
Development of nutritious appendages always [1]
Development of flat appendages  
Development of elongated appendages  
Development of additional appendages  
Weights »
Measured object Germinule
Type of germinule or diaspore S (seed)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Weight (minimum) [mg] 0.7
Weight (mean) [mg] 1.0
Weight (maximum) [mg] 1.2
Measured object Diaspore
Type of germinule or diaspore S (seed)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Weight (minimum) [mg] 0.7
Weight (mean) [mg] 1.0
Weight (maximum) [mg] 1.2
Sizes »
Measured object Germinule
Type of germinule or diaspore S (seed)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Length (minimum) [mm] 1.2
Length (mean) [mm] 1.7
Length (maximum) [mm] 2.0
Width (minimum) [mm] 0.8
Width (mean) [mm] 1.2
Width (maximum) [mm] 1.5
Height (minimum) [mm] 0.7
Height (mean) [mm] 0.8
Height (maximum) [mm] 1.0
Measured object Diaspore
Type of germinule or diaspore S (seed)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Length (minimum) [mm] 1.2
Length (mean) [mm] 1.7
Length (maximum) [mm] 2.0
Width (minimum) [mm] 0.8
Width (mean) [mm] 1.2
Width (maximum) [mm] 1.5
Height (minimum) [mm] 0.7
Height (mean) [mm] 0.8
Height (maximum) [mm] 1.0
special references:
Grime, J.P., Mason, G., Curtis, A.V., Rodman, J., Band, S.R., Mowforth, M.A., Neal, A.M., Shaw, S. 1981: A comparative study of germination characteristics in a local flora. Journal of Ecology 69:1017-1069 (Gattung)
Grime, J.P., Hodgson, J.G., Hunt, R. 1988: Comparative Plant Ecology. Unwin Hyman, London (Gattung)
Beijerink, W. 1947: Zadenatlas der Nederlandsche Flora. Biol. Stat. Wijster, Wageningen (Gattung)
Bresinsky, A. 1963: Bau, Entwicklungsgeschichte und Inhaltsstoffe der Elaiosomen. Studien zur myrmekochoren Verbreitung von Samen und Früchten. Bibliotheca Botanica Vol. 126. (Gattung)
Brouwer, W., Stählin, A. 1955: Handbuch der Samenkunde. DLG-Verlag, Frankfurt/Main (Gattung)
Luftensteiner, H.W. 1982: Untersuchungen zur Verbreitungssbiologie von Pflanzengemeinschaften an vier Standorten in Niederösterreich. Bibliotheca Botanica 135:1-68 (Gattung)
Müller, P. 1955: Verbreitungsbiologie (Diasporologie) der Blütenpflanzen. Veröffentlichungen des Geobotanischen Institutes Rübel Zürich . Verlag Hans Huber, Bern. (Gattung)
Salisbury, E.J. 1974: Seed size and mass in relation to environment. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London, Series B 186:83-88 (Gattung)
Vogler, P. 1901: Ueber die Verbreitungsmittel der schweizerischen Alpenpflanzen. Flora 89 (Ergänzungsband zum Jg.1901):1-137 (Gattung)
Heinisch, O. 1955: Samenatlas der wichtigsten Futterpflanzen und ihrer Unkräuter. Deutsche Akad. Landwirtsch.-Wiss., Berlin (Gattung)
 
group of traits: Ecological strategy »
Strategy type »
Strategy type csr (competitors/stress-tolerators/ruderals)
 
group of traits: Indicator values for grassland species »
Grassland utilization indicator values »
Occurrence GE (little used grasslands)
Guild K (forb)
Mowing tolerance 5 (moderately tolerant to mowing)
Grazing tolerance 5 (moderately tolerant to grazing)
Trampling tolerance 5 (moderately tolerant to trampling)
Foraging value 3 (little forage value)
Foraging value for deer  
 
group of traits: Range »
Floristic zone and altitudinal level »
Floristic zone e (submeridional)
Altitudinal level m (montane)
Status natural range
Floristic zone p (southern temperate)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Floristic zone n (northern temperate)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Floristic zone b (boreal)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Number of inhabited floristic zones »
Number of inhabited floristic zones 3
Oceanity »
Oceanity os (weak oceanic)
Amplitude of Oceanity: 4
Minimum level of oceantity: continental climate
Maximum level of oceantity: extreme oceanic climate
Status natural range
Floristic region »
Floristic region e (Europe)
Continent of floristic region: e (Europa)
Status natural range
Floristic region wa (Western Asia)
Continent of floristic region: a (Asien)
Status natural range
 
group of traits: Hemeroby »
Hemeroby »
Hemeroby o (oligohemerobic)
Hemeroby m (mesohemerobic)
Number of hemerobic levels »
Number of hemerobic levels 2
 
group of traits: Urbanity »
Urbanity »
Urbanity 2 (moderately urbanophobic)
 
group of traits: Habitats »
Habitat »
Habitat T1.1.1.4 (null)
Alliance: Cephalanthero-Fagenion
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
Habitat T1.1.2.3 (null)
Alliance: Carpinion betuli
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
Habitat T6.2.2.2.3 (null)
Alliance: Bromion erecti
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
Habitat T7.1 (null)
Alliance: ???
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
Habitat T8.1.1 (null)
Alliance: Geranion sanguini
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
Habitat T8.1.2 (null)
Alliance: ???
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
 
group of traits: Sociology »
Class »
English circumscription 05.3 (Fescue-brome communities of dry and semi-dry grasslands)
Class: Festuco-Brometea
English circumscription 05.4 (Commercially used grasslands)
Class: Molinio-Arrhenatheretea
English circumscription 07.1 (Thermophilous and mesophilous forest grassland ecotones)
Class: Trifolio-Geranietea sanguinei
English circumscription 09.5 (Blackthorn and buckthorn shrubs)
Class: Rhamno-Prunetea spinosae
English circumscription 10.2 (Mesophilous, summer-green deciduous forests)
Class: Carpino-Fagetea
English circumscription 10.4 (Thermophilous dry oak forests)
Class: Quercetea pubescentis-petraeae
 
 
groups of traits for this species
Status »
Chromosome number »
Phylogeny »
Morphology »
Leaf traits »
Flowering phenology »
Floral and reproductive biology »
Seed traits »
Ecological strategy »
Indicator values for grassland species »
Range »
Hemeroby »
Urbanity »
Habitats »
Sociology »


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