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Overview of all traits of a species

species information (Systematics, BiolFlor-Names, Status)
BiolFlor-Name family german name(s)
Pyrus pyraster Burgsd. Rosaceae » Wild-Birne
reference
Kühn, I., Klotz, S. 2002: Systematik, Taxonomie und Nomenklatur. In: Klotz, S., Kühn, I., Durka, W. (Hrsg.): BIOLFLOR - Eine Datenbank mit biologisch-ökologischen Merkmalen zur Flora von Deutschland. Schriftenreihe für Vegetationskunde. Bonn »
 
Synonymy (taxonomy after Wisskirchen & Haeupler, 1998)
Pyrus pyraster Burgsd. accepted
Pyrus communis subsp. achras Synonym
Pyrus achras Gaertn. Synonym
Pyrus communis subsp. pyraster (L.) Asch. & Graebn. Synonym
Pyrus communis var. pyraster L. Synonym
Pyrus pyraster subsp. achras (Gaertn.) Stohr Synonym
Pyrus pyraster subsp. pyraster Synonym
Pyrus pyraster var. achras Wallr. Synonym
<Pyrus communis agg. accepted
 
group of traits: Status »
Floristic status »
Floristic status I (indigenous)
Evolutionary origin »
Evolutionary origin n (naturally)
Region of origin »
Region of origin 0 (not specified)
Endemism »
Endemism 0 (not specified)
Reference unbekannt
 
group of traits: Chromosome number »
Chromosome number »
Basic chromosome number 17
Chromosome number 2n 34
Chromosome number (Germany) False
Most common chromosome race False
Ploidy level 2 (diploid)
Ploidy type R (palaeopolyploid; polyploid basic number)
Reference Oberdorfer, E. 1983: Pflanzensoziologische Exkursionsflora. Ulmer, Stuttgart
 
group of traits: Phylogeny »
Phylogeny code »
Phylogeny code BBBBBBBBBABBBABBAABBBBBBBABAAA
 
group of traits: Morphology »
Life form »
Life form M (Macrophanerophyte)
Qualifier always [1]
Life form N (Nanophanerophyte)
Qualifier always [1]
Life span »
Life span p (pluriennial-pollakanthic)
Qualifier always [1]
Shoot metamorphoses »
Shoot metamorphoses sd (Shoot thorn)
Qualifier always [1]
Rosettes »
Rosettes r (Erosulate plant)
Qualifier always [1]
 
group of traits: Leaf traits »
Leaf persistence »
Leaf persistence s (summer green)
Leaf anatomy »
Leaf anatomy m (mesomorphic)
Leaf form »
Leaf form norm (simple)
 
group of traits: Flowering phenology »
Flowering phenology »
Begin of flowering (months) 4
End of flowering (months) 5
Duration of flowering (months) 2
Number of flowering phases 0
Symphenological Groups »
Phenological group 0 (not available)
Phenological season: not available
Reference Dierschke, H 1995: Phänologische und symphänologische Artengruppen von Blütenpflanzen in Mitteleuropa. Tuexenia 15: 523-560
 
group of traits: Floral and reproductive biology »
Type of reproduction »
Type of reproduction ssv (mostly by seed, rarely vegetatively)
Reference Kutzelnigg, H. 1995: Maloideae. In: Hegi, G.B. (Hrsg.) Illustrierte Flora von Mitteleuropa, 4 (2b), S. 250-426, Blackwell, Berlin
Type of seed production »
Type of seed production s (amphimictic, sexual)
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Dicliny »
Dicliny so (hermaphroditic)
Abundance always [1]
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Dichogamy »
Dichogamy g3 (pronounced protogynous)
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Dichogamy g2 (protogynous)
Reference Kutzelnigg, H. 1995: Maloideae. In: Hegi, G.B. (Hrsg.) Illustrierte Flora von Mitteleuropa, 4 (2b), S. 250-426, Blackwell, Berlin
Self-sterility and self-incompatibility »
Self-sterility and self-incompatibility SI (self-incompatibel)
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Systematic reference species [S]
SI mechanism »
SI mechanism GSI (gametophytic self-incompatibility)
Reference de Nettancourt, D. 1977: Incompatibility in angiosperms. Springer, Berlin
Pollen vector »
Pollen vector in (insects)
Pollen vector group: zo (Tierbestäubung)
Abundance always [1]
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Systematic reference species [S]
Breeding system »
Breeding system X (allogamous)
Reference Anmerkung 2002: xenogam, da SI
Floral rewards »
Floral rewards 1 (nectar)
Reference Kutzelnigg, H. 1995: Maloideae. In: Hegi, G.B. (Hrsg.) Illustrierte Flora von Mitteleuropa, 4 (2b), S. 250-426, Blackwell, Berlin
Amount of floral reward 2 (little)
Floral rewards 1 (nectar)
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Amount of floral reward 3 (present)
Flower color »
Flower colour white
Basic flower colour w (white)
Reference Schubert, R., Jäger, E.J., Werner, K. (Hrsg.) 1987: Exkursionsflora Band 3. Atlas der Gefäßpflanzen. 6. Aufl., Volk und Wissen, Berlin
Flower class after MUELLER »
Flower class after MUELLER ABDe (transition type flowers with partly hidden nectar - nasty flowers)
Typical pollinators: flies, beetles
Flower type after KUGLER »
Flower type after KUGLER 1.2ba (disk flowers with nectar ± hidden in centre of flower)
 
group of traits: Seed traits »
Fruit type »
Fruit type Po (pome)
Diaspore type »
Diaspore type SaF (aggregate fruit (syncarpous))
Germinule type »
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Germinule type S (seed)
Information available True
Development of nutritious appendages  
Development of flat appendages  
Development of elongated appendages  
Development of additional appendages  
Sizes »
Measured object Germinule
Type of germinule or diaspore S (seed)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Length (minimum) [mm] 4.5
Length (mean) [mm] 5.5
Length (maximum) [mm] 6.5
Width (minimum) [mm] 2.0
Width (mean) [mm] 2.5
Width (maximum) [mm] 3.0
Height (minimum) [mm] 1.3
Height (mean) [mm] 1.8
Height (maximum) [mm] 2.2
Measured object Diaspore
Type of germinule or diaspore SaF (aggregate fruit (syncarpous))
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Length (minimum) [mm] 15.0
Length (mean) [mm] 22.5
Length (maximum) [mm] 30.0
Width (minimum) [mm] 15.0
Width (mean) [mm] 22.5
Width (maximum) [mm] 30.0
Height (minimum) [mm] 15.0
Height (mean) [mm] 22.5
Height (maximum) [mm] 30.0
special references:
Brzeziecki, B., Kienast, F. 1994: Classifying the life-history strategies of trees on the basis of the Grimian model. Forest Ecology and Management 69:167-187 (Gattung)
Beijerink, W. 1947: Zadenatlas der Nederlandsche Flora. Biol. Stat. Wijster, Wageningen (Gattung)
Brouwer, W., Stählin, A. 1955: Handbuch der Samenkunde. DLG-Verlag, Frankfurt/Main (Gattung)
Pelc, S. 1984: Morphology and structure of wild apple (Malus silvestris Mill.) common pear (Pyrus communis L.) and Chaenomeles japonica (Thinb.) Lindl. seeds. Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae 53:159-170 (Gattung)
 
group of traits: Ecological strategy »
Strategy type »
Strategy type c (competitors)
 
group of traits: Range »
Floristic zone and altitudinal level »
Floristic zone e (submeridional)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Floristic zone p (southern temperate)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Floristic zone n (northern temperate)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Number of inhabited floristic zones »
Number of inhabited floristic zones 2
Oceanity »
Oceanity so (suboceanic)
Amplitude of Oceanity: 3
Minimum level of oceantity: continental climate
Maximum level of oceantity: extreme oceanic climate
Status natural range
Floristic region »
Floristic region e (Europe)
Continent of floristic region: e (Europa)
Status natural range
 
group of traits: Hemeroby »
Hemeroby »
Hemeroby o (oligohemerobic)
Hemeroby m (mesohemerobic)
Number of hemerobic levels »
Number of hemerobic levels 2
 
group of traits: Urbanity »
Urbanity »
Urbanity 1 (urbanophobic)
 
group of traits: Habitats »
Habitat »
Habitat L5.2.3 (null)
Alliance: Alno-Ulmion p.p.
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
Habitat T1.1.2.3 (null)
Alliance: Carpinion betuli
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
Habitat T1.1.2.4 (null)
Alliance: Quercetalia pubescentis
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
Habitat T1.4.1.3 (null)
Alliance: Erico-Pinion
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
 
group of traits: Sociology »
Class »
English circumscription 09.5 (Blackthorn and buckthorn shrubs)
Class: Rhamno-Prunetea spinosae
English circumscription 10.2 (Mesophilous, summer-green deciduous forests)
Class: Carpino-Fagetea
English circumscription 10.4 (Thermophilous dry oak forests)
Class: Quercetea pubescentis-petraeae
English circumscription 10.7 (Snow-heather pine-forests)
Class: Erico-Pinetea
 
 
groups of traits for this species
Status »
Chromosome number »
Phylogeny »
Morphology »
Leaf traits »
Flowering phenology »
Floral and reproductive biology »
Seed traits »
Ecological strategy »
Range »
Hemeroby »
Urbanity »
Habitats »
Sociology »


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