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Overview of all traits of a species

species information (Systematics, BiolFlor-Names, Status)
BiolFlor-Name family german name(s)
Silene dioica (L.) Clairv. Caryophyllaceae » Rote Lichtnelke
reference
Kühn, I., Klotz, S. 2002: Systematik, Taxonomie und Nomenklatur. In: Klotz, S., Kühn, I., Durka, W. (Hrsg.): BIOLFLOR - Eine Datenbank mit biologisch-ökologischen Merkmalen zur Flora von Deutschland. Schriftenreihe für Vegetationskunde. Bonn »
 
Synonymy (taxonomy after Wisskirchen & Haeupler, 1998)
Silene dioica (L.) Clairv. accepted
Melandrium dioicum (L.) Coss. & Germ. Synonym
Lychnis dioica L. Basionym
Lychnis diurna Sibth. Synonym
Melandrium diurnum (Sibth.) Fr. Synonym
Melandrium rubrum Garcke, nom. illeg. Synonym
Melandrium sylvestre (Schkuhr) Röhl. Synonym
Lychnis dioica var. rubra Weigel Synonym
Lychnis sylvestris Schkuhr Synonym
 
group of traits: Status »
Floristic status »
Floristic status I (indigenous)
Evolutionary origin »
Evolutionary origin n (naturally)
Region of origin »
Region of origin 0 (not specified)
Endemism »
Endemism 0 (not specified)
Reference unbekannt
 
group of traits: Chromosome number »
Chromosome number »
Basic chromosome number 12
Chromosome number 2n 24
Chromosome number (Germany) True
Most common chromosome race False
Ploidy level 2 (diploid)
Ploidy type R (palaeopolyploid; polyploid basic number)
Reference Oberdorfer, E. 1983: Pflanzensoziologische Exkursionsflora. Ulmer, Stuttgart
Basic chromosome number 12
Chromosome number 2n 48
Chromosome number (Germany) False
Most common chromosome race False
Ploidy level  
Ploidy type R (palaeopolyploid; polyploid basic number)
Reference Oberdorfer, E. 1983: Pflanzensoziologische Exkursionsflora. Ulmer, Stuttgart
 
group of traits: DNA content »
DNA content »
DNA content (pg/2C) 5.4
Chromosome number 24
Quality chromosome number known and occurring in Germany [b]
Authorised in BENNET & LEITCH 2001 True
Reference Bennett, M.D., Smith, J.S. 1991: Nuclear DNA amounts in angiosperms. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London B 334:309-345
 
group of traits: Phylogeny »
Phylogeny code »
Phylogeny code BBBBBBBBBBBBBAABBBBBBBBBAC
 
group of traits: Morphology »
Life form »
Life form H (Hemicryptophyte)
Qualifier always [1]
Life span »
Life span p (pluriennial-pollakanthic)
Qualifier always [1]
Vegetative propagation »
Vegetative propagation rp (Rhizome-like pleiocorm)
Qualifier always [1]
Storage organs »
Storage organs rp (Rhizome-like pleiocorm)
Qualifier always [1]
Shoot metamorphoses »
Shoot metamorphoses rp (Rhizome-like pleiocorm)
Qualifier always [1]
Rosettes »
Rosettes h (Hemirosette plant)
Qualifier always [1]
special references:
Baker, H.G. 1947: Biological Flora of the British Isles: Melandrium dioicum (L. emend.) Coss. & Germ.. Journal of Ecology 35:283-292
Mörchen, G. 1972: Über den unterschiedlichen Wuchs zweier einheimischer Lichtnelken. Hercynia N. F. 9:271-274
Raunkiaer, C. 1934: The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford
 
group of traits: Leaf traits »
Leaf persistence »
Leaf persistence i (persistent green)
Leaf anatomy »
Leaf anatomy m (mesomorphic)
Leaf form »
Leaf form norm (simple)
 
group of traits: Flowering phenology »
Flowering phenology »
Begin of flowering (months) 4
End of flowering (months) 9
Duration of flowering (months) 6
Number of flowering phases 0
Symphenological Groups »
Phenological group 5 (Sorbus aucuparia-Galium odoratum-Phase)
Phenological season: end of mid spring
Reference Dierschke, H 1995: Phänologische und symphänologische Artengruppen von Blütenpflanzen in Mitteleuropa. Tuexenia 15: 523-560
 
group of traits: Floral and reproductive biology »
Type of reproduction »
Type of reproduction ssv (mostly by seed, rarely vegetatively)
Reference Baker, H.G. 1947: Biological Flora of the British Isles: Melandrium dioicum (L. emend.) Coss. & Germ.. Journal of Ecology 35:283-292
Type of seed production »
Type of seed production s (amphimictic, sexual)
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Dicliny »
Dicliny do (dioecious)
Abundance always [1]
Reference Rothmaler, W. 1990: Exkursionsflora. Band 4, Kritischer Band. 8. Aufl., Verlag Volk und Wissen, Berlin
Dicliny tr (trioecious)
Abundance rare [4]
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Dichogamy »
Dichogamy a3 (pronounced protandrous)
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Self-sterility and self-incompatibility »
Self-sterility and self-incompatibility SC (self-compatibel)
Reference East, E.M. 1940: The distribution of self-sterility in the flowering plants. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 82:449-518
Systematic reference family [F]
Pollen vector »
Pollen vector in (insects)
Pollen vector group: zo (Tierbestäubung)
Abundance always [1]
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Systematic reference species [S]
Breeding system »
Breeding system X (allogamous)
Reference Fryxell, P.M. 1957: Modes of reproduction of higher plants. The Botanical Review 23:135-233
P/O ratio »
P/O ratio 150.0
Reference Jürgens, A. 1998: Blütenmorphologie, Reproduktionssysteme und Blütendüfte von Silene-, Dianthus, Saponaria-, Agrostemma-, und Vaccaria-Arten (Caryophyllaceae). Diss. Univ. Ulm
P/O ratio 150.0
Reference Jürgens, A., Witt, T., Gottsberger, G. 2002: Pollen grain numbers, ovule numbers and pollen-ovule ratios in Caryophylloideae: correlation with breeding system, pollination, life form, style number, and sexual system. Sexual Plant Reproduction 14:279-289
Floral rewards »
Floral rewards 1 (nectar)
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Amount of floral reward 3 (present)
Flower color »
Flower colour red
Basic flower colour r (red)
Reference Schubert, R., Jäger, E.J., Werner, K. (Hrsg.) 1987: Exkursionsflora Band 3. Atlas der Gefäßpflanzen. 6. Aufl., Volk und Wissen, Berlin
UV reflection of the flower »
UV reflection in the periphery of the flower 3 (16-27 %)
UV reflection in the centre of the flower 3 (16-27 %)
UV reflection pattern 1 (UV reflectance pattern present)
Flower class after MUELLER »
Flower class after MUELLER Ft (butterfly flowers)
Typical pollinators: butterflies
Flower type after KUGLER »
Flower type after KUGLER 4.2 (stalk disc flowers, stamina and pistil outside tube)
 
group of traits: Seed traits »
Fruit type »
Fruit type Ka (capsule)
Diaspore type »
Diaspore type S (seed)
Germinule type »
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Germinule type S (seed)
Information available True
Development of nutritious appendages  
Development of flat appendages  
Development of elongated appendages  
Development of additional appendages  
Weights »
Measured object Germinule
Type of germinule or diaspore S (seed)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Weight (minimum) [mg] 0.4
Weight (mean) [mg] 0.6
Weight (maximum) [mg] 0.7
Measured object Diaspore
Type of germinule or diaspore S (seed)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Weight (minimum) [mg] 0.4
Weight (mean) [mg] 0.6
Weight (maximum) [mg] 0.7
Sizes »
Measured object Diaspore
Type of germinule or diaspore S (seed)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Length (minimum) [mm] 1.0
Length (mean) [mm] 1.3
Length (maximum) [mm] 1.7
Width (minimum) [mm] 0.7
Width (mean) [mm] 1.0
Width (maximum) [mm] 1.5
Height (minimum) [mm] 0.5
Height (mean) [mm] 0.8
Height (maximum) [mm] 1.0
Measured object Germinule
Type of germinule or diaspore S (seed)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Length (minimum) [mm] 1.0
Length (mean) [mm] 1.3
Length (maximum) [mm] 1.7
Width (minimum) [mm] 0.7
Width (mean) [mm] 1.0
Width (maximum) [mm] 1.5
Height (minimum) [mm] 0.5
Height (mean) [mm] 0.8
Height (maximum) [mm] 1.0
special references:
Grime, J.P., Mason, G., Curtis, A.V., Rodman, J., Band, S.R., Mowforth, M.A., Neal, A.M., Shaw, S. 1981: A comparative study of germination characteristics in a local flora. Journal of Ecology 69:1017-1069 (Gattung)
Thompson, K., Band, S.R., Hodgson, J.G. 1993: Seed size and shape predict persistence in soil. Functional Ecology 7:236-241 (Gattung)
Grime, J.P., Hodgson, J.G., Hunt, R. 1988: Comparative Plant Ecology. Unwin Hyman, London (Gattung)
Hensen, I., Müller, C. 1997: Experimental and structural investigations of anemochorous dispersal. Plant Ecology 133:169-180 (Gattung)
Jones, V., Richards, P.W. 1962: Biological Flora of the British Isles: Silene acaulis (L.) Jacq.. Journal of Ecology 50:475-487 (Gattung)
Bakker, J.P., Bakker, E.S., Rosén, E., Verweij, G.L., Bekker, R.M. 1996: Soil seed bank composition along a gradient from dry alvar grassland to Juniperus shrubland. Journal of Vegetation Science 7:165-176 (Gattung)
Bakker, J.P., Bakker, E.S., Rosén, E., Verweij, G.L. 1997: The soil seed bank of undisturbed and disturbed dry limestone grassland on Öland (Sweden). Z. Ökologie Nat. sch. 6:9-18 (Gattung)
Beijerink, W. 1947: Zadenatlas der Nederlandsche Flora. Biol. Stat. Wijster, Wageningen (Gattung)
Berggren, G. 1981: Atlas of seeds and small fruits of Northwest-European plant species with morphological descriptions. - Part 3 (Salicaceae-Cruciferaceae). Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm (Gattung)
Brouwer, W., Stählin, A. 1955: Handbuch der Samenkunde. DLG-Verlag, Frankfurt/Main (Gattung)
Cremer, J., Partzsch, M., Zimmermann, M., Schwär, C., Goltz, H. 1991: Acker- und Gartenwildkräuter: ein Bestimmungsbuch. . Deutscher Landwirtschaftsverlag, Berlin. (Gattung)
Hanf, M. 1984: Ackerunkräuter Europas mit ihren Keimlingen und Samen. . BLV Verlagsgesellschaft, München, Wien, Zürich. (Gattung)
Luftensteiner, H.W. 1982: Untersuchungen zur Verbreitungssbiologie von Pflanzengemeinschaften an vier Standorten in Niederösterreich. Bibliotheca Botanica 135:1-68 (Gattung)
Vogler, P. 1901: Ueber die Verbreitungsmittel der schweizerischen Alpenpflanzen. Flora 89 (Ergänzungsband zum Jg.1901):1-137 (Gattung)
Heinisch, O. 1955: Samenatlas der wichtigsten Futterpflanzen und ihrer Unkräuter. Deutsche Akad. Landwirtsch.-Wiss., Berlin (Gattung)
 
group of traits: Ecological strategy »
Strategy type »
Strategy type c (competitors)
 
group of traits: Indicator values for grassland species »
Grassland utilization indicator values »
Occurrence GE (little used grasslands)
Guild K (forb)
Mowing tolerance 5 (moderately tolerant to mowing)
Grazing tolerance 2 (between 1 and 3 (intolerant to sensitive to grazing))
Trampling tolerance 2 (between 1 and 3 (intolerant to sensitive to trampling))
Foraging value 4 (between 3 and 5 (little to intermediate forage value))
Foraging value for deer 5 (intermediate forage value)
 
group of traits: Range »
Floristic zone and altitudinal level »
Floristic zone e (submeridional)
Altitudinal level m (montane)
Status natural range
Floristic zone p (southern temperate)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Floristic zone n (northern temperate)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Floristic zone b (boreal)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Number of inhabited floristic zones »
Number of inhabited floristic zones 3
Oceanity »
Oceanity os (weak oceanic)
Amplitude of Oceanity: 4
Minimum level of oceantity: continental climate
Maximum level of oceantity: extreme oceanic climate
Status natural range
Floristic region »
Floristic region e (Europe)
Continent of floristic region: e (Europa)
Status natural range
Floristic region ws (Western Siberia)
Continent of floristic region: a (Asien)
Status natural range
 
group of traits: Hemeroby »
Hemeroby »
Hemeroby o (oligohemerobic)
Hemeroby m (mesohemerobic)
Hemeroby b (b-euhemerobic)
Number of hemerobic levels »
Number of hemerobic levels 3
 
group of traits: Urbanity »
Urbanity »
Urbanity 2 (moderately urbanophobic)
 
group of traits: Habitats »
Habitat »
Habitat L5.2.5.4 (null)
Alliance: Filipendulion
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
Habitat T2.2.2 (null)
Alliance: Atropion belladonnae
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
Habitat T3.1.1 (null)
Alliance: Adenostylion alliariae
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
 
group of traits: Sociology »
Class »
English circumscription 05.4 (Commercially used grasslands)
Class: Molinio-Arrhenatheretea
English circumscription 07.2 (Alpine-montane tall herb and small-reed communities)
Class: Stellario nemorum-Geranietea sylvatici
English circumscription 07.5 (Nitrophilous tall herb communities)
Class: Galio-Urticetea dioicae
English circumscription 09.1 (Subalpine-alpine green alder and willow communities)
Class: Betulo carpaticae-Alnetea viridis
English circumscription 09.5 (Blackthorn and buckthorn shrubs)
Class: Rhamno-Prunetea spinosae
English circumscription 10.2 (Mesophilous, summer-green deciduous forests)
Class: Carpino-Fagetea
 
 
groups of traits for this species
Status »
Chromosome number »
DNA content »
Phylogeny »
Morphology »
Leaf traits »
Flowering phenology »
Floral and reproductive biology »
Seed traits »
Ecological strategy »
Indicator values for grassland species »
Range »
Hemeroby »
Urbanity »
Habitats »
Sociology »


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