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Overview of all traits of a species

species information (Systematics, BiolFlor-Names, Status)
BiolFlor-Name family german name(s)
Silene otites (L.) Wibel Caryophyllaceae » Ohrlöffel-Leimkraut
reference
Kühn, I., Klotz, S. 2002: Systematik, Taxonomie und Nomenklatur. In: Klotz, S., Kühn, I., Durka, W. (Hrsg.): BIOLFLOR - Eine Datenbank mit biologisch-ökologischen Merkmalen zur Flora von Deutschland. Schriftenreihe für Vegetationskunde. Bonn »
 
Synonymy (taxonomy after Wisskirchen & Haeupler, 1998)
Silene otites (L.) Wibel accepted
Silene x pseudotites , auct., non Besser ex Rchb. Synonym
Cucubalus otites L. Basionym
Otites cuneifolia Raf. Synonym
Silene otites subsp. pseudotites , auct. p. p., non (Besser ex Rchb.) Asch. & Graebn. Synonym
Silene otites subsp. otites Synonym
 
group of traits: Status »
Floristic status »
Floristic status I (indigenous)
Evolutionary origin »
Evolutionary origin n (naturally)
Region of origin »
Region of origin 0 (not specified)
Endemism »
Endemism 0 (not specified)
Reference unbekannt
 
group of traits: Chromosome number »
Chromosome number »
Basic chromosome number 12
Chromosome number 2n 24
Chromosome number (Germany) True
Most common chromosome race False
Ploidy level 2 (diploid)
Ploidy type R (palaeopolyploid; polyploid basic number)
Reference Oberdorfer, E. 1983: Pflanzensoziologische Exkursionsflora. Ulmer, Stuttgart
 
group of traits: Phylogeny »
Phylogeny code »
Phylogeny code BBBBBBBBBBBBBAABBBBBBAABB
 
group of traits: Morphology »
Life form »
Life form H (Hemicryptophyte)
Qualifier always [1]
Life span »
Life span b (biennial)
Qualifier always [1]
Life span p (pluriennial-pollakanthic)
Qualifier always [1]
Storage organs »
Storage organs p (Pleiocorm)
Qualifier sometimes [2]
Storage organs r (Primary storage root)
Qualifier sometimes [2]
Shoot metamorphoses »
Shoot metamorphoses p (Pleiocorm)
Qualifier sometimes [2]
Root metamorphoses »
Root metamorphoses r (Primary storage root)
Qualifier sometimes [2]
Rosettes »
Rosettes h (Hemirosette plant)
Qualifier always [1]
special references:
Warming, E. 1920: The structure and biology of arctic flowering plants II. 13. Caryophyllaceae. Medd. om Groenl. 37 (1921):229-342
Meusel, H. 1952: Über Wuchsform, Verbreitung und Phylogenie einiger mediterran mitteleuropäischer Angiospermen-Gattungen. Flora 139:333-393
Hensen, I. 1997: Life strategies of xerothermic grasslands - mechanisms of reproduction and colonization within Stipetum capillatae s.l. and Adonido-Brachypodietum pinnati. Feddes Repertorium 108:425-452
Ebel, F., Mühlberg, H. 1987: Vergleichend-ökomorphologische Untersuchungen an Pflanzen-Taxa eines Trocken- und Feuchtbiotops. Hercynia N. F. 24:408-424
Rauh, W. 1937: Die Bildung von Hypokotyl- und Wurzelsprossen und ihre Bedeutung für die Wuchsformen der Pflanzen. Nova Acta Leopold. N. F. 4:395-553
Kutschera, L., Lichtenegger, E. 1992: Wurzelatlas mitteleuropäischer Grünlandpflanzen. Bd. 2 Pteridophyta und Dicotyledonae (Magnoliopsida). Teil I Morphologie, Anatomie, Ökologie, Verbreitung, Soziologie, Wirtschaft. Fischer, Stuttgart, Jena, New York
 
group of traits: Leaf traits »
Leaf persistence »
Leaf persistence i (persistent green)
Leaf anatomy »
Leaf anatomy s (scleromorphic)
Leaf form »
Leaf form lang (long-leaf)
 
group of traits: Flowering phenology »
Flowering phenology »
Begin of flowering (months) 5
End of flowering (months) 8
Duration of flowering (months) 4
Number of flowering phases 0
Symphenological Groups »
Phenological group 6 (Cornus sanguinea-Melica uniflora-Phase)
Phenological season: start of early summer
Reference Dierschke, H 1995: Phänologische und symphänologische Artengruppen von Blütenpflanzen in Mitteleuropa. Tuexenia 15: 523-560
 
group of traits: Floral and reproductive biology »
Type of reproduction »
Type of reproduction s (by seed/by spore)
Reference Krumbiegel, A. 2002: Morphologie der vegetativen Organe (außer Blätter). In: Klotz, S., Kühn, I., Durka, W. (Hrsg.) BiolFlor - Biologisch-ökologische Daten zur Flora Deutschlands, S. 1-2, Bonn
Type of seed production »
Type of seed production s (amphimictic, sexual)
Reference Brantjes, N.B.M., Leemans, J.A.A.M. 1976: Silene otites (Caryophyllaceae) pollinated by nocturnal lepidoptera and mosquitoes. Acta Botanica Neerlandica 25:281-295
Dicliny »
Dicliny do (dioecious)
Abundance the rule [2]
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Dicliny gd (gynodioecious)
Abundance rare [4]
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Dichogamy »
Dichogamy a2 (protandrous)
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Self-sterility and self-incompatibility »
Self-sterility and self-incompatibility SC (self-compatibel)
Reference East, E.M. 1940: The distribution of self-sterility in the flowering plants. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 82:449-518
Systematic reference family [F]
Pollen vector »
Pollen vector in (insects)
Pollen vector group: zo (Tierbestäubung)
Abundance the rule [2]
Reference Brantjes, N.B.M., Leemans, J.A.A.M. 1976: Silene otites (Caryophyllaceae) pollinated by nocturnal lepidoptera and mosquitoes. Acta Botanica Neerlandica 25:281-295
Systematic reference species [S]
Breeding system »
Breeding system X (allogamous)
Reference Anmerkung 2002: vgl. Klassifizierungsschema Abb.
P/O ratio »
P/O ratio 753.0
Reference Jürgens, A. 1998: Blütenmorphologie, Reproduktionssysteme und Blütendüfte von Silene-, Dianthus, Saponaria-, Agrostemma-, und Vaccaria-Arten (Caryophyllaceae). Diss. Univ. Ulm
P/O ratio 719.0
Reference Jürgens, A., Witt, T., Gottsberger, G. 2002: Pollen grain numbers, ovule numbers and pollen-ovule ratios in Caryophylloideae: correlation with breeding system, pollination, life form, style number, and sexual system. Sexual Plant Reproduction 14:279-289
Floral rewards »
Floral rewards 1 (nectar)
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Amount of floral reward 3 (present)
Flower color »
Flower colour yellow green
Basic flower colour gr (green)
Reference Schubert, R., Jäger, E.J., Werner, K. (Hrsg.) 1987: Exkursionsflora Band 3. Atlas der Gefäßpflanzen. 6. Aufl., Volk und Wissen, Berlin
Flower class after MUELLER »
Flower class after MUELLER FD (transition type butterfly flowers - fly flowers)
Typical pollinators: lepidoptera, flies
Flower type after KUGLER »
Flower type after KUGLER 4.2 (stalk disc flowers, stamina and pistil outside tube)
 
group of traits: Seed traits »
Fruit type »
Fruit type Ka (capsule)
Diaspore type »
Diaspore type S (seed)
Germinule type »
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Germinule type S (seed)
Information available True
Development of nutritious appendages  
Development of flat appendages  
Development of elongated appendages  
Development of additional appendages  
Weights »
Measured object Diaspore
Type of germinule or diaspore S (seed)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Weight (minimum) [mg]  
Weight (mean) [mg] 0.2
Weight (maximum) [mg]  
Measured object Germinule
Type of germinule or diaspore S (seed)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Weight (minimum) [mg]  
Weight (mean) [mg] 0.2
Weight (maximum) [mg]  
Sizes »
Measured object Germinule
Type of germinule or diaspore S (seed)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Length (minimum) [mm] 0.6
Length (mean) [mm] 0.9
Length (maximum) [mm] 1.1
Width (minimum) [mm] 0.6
Width (mean) [mm] 0.7
Width (maximum) [mm] 0.7
Height (minimum) [mm] 0.4
Height (mean) [mm] 0.4
Height (maximum) [mm] 0.4
Measured object Diaspore
Type of germinule or diaspore S (seed)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Length (minimum) [mm] 0.6
Length (mean) [mm] 0.9
Length (maximum) [mm] 1.1
Width (minimum) [mm] 0.6
Width (mean) [mm] 0.7
Width (maximum) [mm] 0.7
Height (minimum) [mm] 0.4
Height (mean) [mm] 0.4
Height (maximum) [mm] 0.4
special references:
Grime, J.P., Mason, G., Curtis, A.V., Rodman, J., Band, S.R., Mowforth, M.A., Neal, A.M., Shaw, S. 1981: A comparative study of germination characteristics in a local flora. Journal of Ecology 69:1017-1069 (Gattung)
Thompson, K., Band, S.R., Hodgson, J.G. 1993: Seed size and shape predict persistence in soil. Functional Ecology 7:236-241 (Gattung)
Grime, J.P., Hodgson, J.G., Hunt, R. 1988: Comparative Plant Ecology. Unwin Hyman, London (Gattung)
Hensen, I., Müller, C. 1997: Experimental and structural investigations of anemochorous dispersal. Plant Ecology 133:169-180 (Gattung)
Jones, V., Richards, P.W. 1962: Biological Flora of the British Isles: Silene acaulis (L.) Jacq.. Journal of Ecology 50:475-487 (Gattung)
Bakker, J.P., Bakker, E.S., Rosén, E., Verweij, G.L., Bekker, R.M. 1996: Soil seed bank composition along a gradient from dry alvar grassland to Juniperus shrubland. Journal of Vegetation Science 7:165-176 (Gattung)
Bakker, J.P., Bakker, E.S., Rosén, E., Verweij, G.L. 1997: The soil seed bank of undisturbed and disturbed dry limestone grassland on Öland (Sweden). Z. Ökologie Nat. sch. 6:9-18 (Gattung)
Beijerink, W. 1947: Zadenatlas der Nederlandsche Flora. Biol. Stat. Wijster, Wageningen (Gattung)
Berggren, G. 1981: Atlas of seeds and small fruits of Northwest-European plant species with morphological descriptions. - Part 3 (Salicaceae-Cruciferaceae). Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm (Gattung)
Brouwer, W., Stählin, A. 1955: Handbuch der Samenkunde. DLG-Verlag, Frankfurt/Main (Gattung)
Cremer, J., Partzsch, M., Zimmermann, M., Schwär, C., Goltz, H. 1991: Acker- und Gartenwildkräuter: ein Bestimmungsbuch. . Deutscher Landwirtschaftsverlag, Berlin. (Gattung)
Hanf, M. 1984: Ackerunkräuter Europas mit ihren Keimlingen und Samen. . BLV Verlagsgesellschaft, München, Wien, Zürich. (Gattung)
Luftensteiner, H.W. 1982: Untersuchungen zur Verbreitungssbiologie von Pflanzengemeinschaften an vier Standorten in Niederösterreich. Bibliotheca Botanica 135:1-68 (Gattung)
Vogler, P. 1901: Ueber die Verbreitungsmittel der schweizerischen Alpenpflanzen. Flora 89 (Ergänzungsband zum Jg.1901):1-137 (Gattung)
Heinisch, O. 1955: Samenatlas der wichtigsten Futterpflanzen und ihrer Unkräuter. Deutsche Akad. Landwirtsch.-Wiss., Berlin (Gattung)
 
group of traits: Ecological strategy »
Strategy type »
Strategy type s (stress-tolerators)
 
group of traits: Range »
Floristic zone and altitudinal level »
Floristic zone m (meridional)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Floristic zone e (submeridional)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Floristic zone p (southern temperate)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Floristic zone n (northern temperate)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Number of inhabited floristic zones »
Number of inhabited floristic zones 3
Oceanity »
Oceanity ks (weak continental)
Amplitude of Oceanity: 4
Minimum level of oceantity: extreme central continental climate
Maximum level of oceantity: oceanic climate
Status natural range
Floristic region »
Floristic region e (Europe)
Continent of floristic region: e (Europa)
Status natural range
Floristic region ws (Western Siberia)
Continent of floristic region: a (Asien)
Status natural range
 
group of traits: Hemeroby »
Hemeroby »
Hemeroby o (oligohemerobic)
Hemeroby m (mesohemerobic)
Number of hemerobic levels »
Number of hemerobic levels 2
 
group of traits: Urbanity »
Urbanity »
Urbanity 1 (urbanophobic)
 
group of traits: Habitats »
Habitat »
Habitat T6.2.2.2.1 (null)
Alliance: Xerobromion
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
Habitat T6.2.2.2.2 (null)
Alliance: Koelerio-Phleion phleoides
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
 
group of traits: Sociology »
Class »
English circumscription 04.4 (Communities of heavy metal soils)
Class: Violetea calaminariae
English circumscription 05.2 (Pioneer communities of hair-grasses)
Class: Koelerio-Corynephoretea
English circumscription 05.3 (Fescue-brome communities of dry and semi-dry grasslands)
Class: Festuco-Brometea
English circumscription 10.6 (Pine steppe-forests)
Class: Pulsatillo-Pinetea sylvestris
 
 
groups of traits for this species
Status »
Chromosome number »
Phylogeny »
Morphology »
Leaf traits »
Flowering phenology »
Floral and reproductive biology »
Seed traits »
Ecological strategy »
Range »
Hemeroby »
Urbanity »
Habitats »
Sociology »


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