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Overview of all traits of a species

species information (Systematics, BiolFlor-Names, Status)
BiolFlor-Name family german name(s)
Trifolium repens L. Fabaceae » Weiß-Klee
reference
Kühn, I., Klotz, S. 2002: Systematik, Taxonomie und Nomenklatur. In: Klotz, S., Kühn, I., Durka, W. (Hrsg.): BIOLFLOR - Eine Datenbank mit biologisch-ökologischen Merkmalen zur Flora von Deutschland. Schriftenreihe für Vegetationskunde. Bonn »
 
Synonymy (taxonomy after Wisskirchen & Haeupler, 1998)
Trifolium repens L. accepted
Trifolium repens subsp. alpinum (Schur) Rothm. Synonym
 
group of traits: Status »
Floristic status »
Floristic status I (indigenous)
Evolutionary origin »
Evolutionary origin n (naturally)
Region of origin »
Region of origin 0 (not specified)
Endemism »
Endemism 0 (not specified)
Reference unbekannt
 
group of traits: Chromosome number »
Chromosome number »
Basic chromosome number 8
Chromosome number 2n 32
Chromosome number (Germany) True
Most common chromosome race False
Ploidy level 4 (tetraploid)
Ploidy type P (polyploid with haploid basic number)
Reference Oberdorfer, E. 1983: Pflanzensoziologische Exkursionsflora. Ulmer, Stuttgart
 
group of traits: DNA content »
DNA content »
DNA content (pg/2C) 3.1
Chromosome number 32
Quality chromosome number known and occurring in Germany [b]
Authorised in BENNET & LEITCH 2001 False
Reference Bennett, M.D., Smith, J.S. 1991: Nuclear DNA amounts in angiosperms. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London B 334:309-345
DNA content (pg/2C) 2.0
Chromosome number 32
Quality chromosome number known and occurring in Germany [b]
Authorised in BENNET & LEITCH 2001 True
Reference Bennett, M.D., Smith, J.S. 1991: Nuclear DNA amounts in angiosperms. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London B 334:309-345
DNA content (pg/2C) 2.1
Chromosome number 32
Quality chromosome number known and occurring in Germany [b]
Authorised in BENNET & LEITCH 2001 False
Reference Bennett, M.D., Leitch, I.J. 1995: Nuclear DNA amounts in angiosperms. Annals of Botany 76:113-176
DNA content (pg/2C) 2.7
Chromosome number 32
Quality chromosome number known and occurring in Germany [b]
Authorised in BENNET & LEITCH 2001 False
Reference Bennett, M.D., Bhandol, P., Leitch, I.J. 2000: Nuclear DNA amounts in angiosperms and their modern uses - 807 new estimates. Annals of Botany 86:859-909
DNA content (pg/2C) 2.2
Chromosome number 32
Quality chromosome number known and occurring in Germany [b]
Authorised in BENNET & LEITCH 2001 False
Reference Bennett, M.D., Bhandol, P., Leitch, I.J. 2000: Nuclear DNA amounts in angiosperms and their modern uses - 807 new estimates. Annals of Botany 86:859-909
DNA content (pg/2C) 2.2
Chromosome number 32
Quality chromosome number known and occurring in Germany [b]
Authorised in BENNET & LEITCH 2001 False
Reference Bennett, M.D., Smith, J.S. 1991: Nuclear DNA amounts in angiosperms. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London B 334:309-345
 
group of traits: Phylogeny »
Phylogeny code »
Phylogeny code BBBBBBBBBABBBAABAAAAAAAAABBBB
 
group of traits: Morphology »
Life form »
Life form H (Hemicryptophyte)
Qualifier always [1]
Life span »
Life span p (pluriennial-pollakanthic)
Qualifier always [1]
Vegetative propagation »
Vegetative propagation a (Runner)
Qualifier always [1]
Storage organs »
Storage organs a (Runner)
Qualifier always [1]
Storage organs r (Primary storage root)
Qualifier always [1]
Shoot metamorphoses »
Shoot metamorphoses a (Runner)
Qualifier always [1]
Root metamorphoses »
Root metamorphoses r (Primary storage root)
Qualifier always [1]
Rosettes »
Rosettes h (Hemirosette plant)
Qualifier always [1]
special references:
Burdon, J.J. 1983: Biological Flora of the British Isles: Trifolium repens L.. Journal of Ecology 71:307-330
Turkington, R., Burdon, J.J. 1983: The biology of Canadian weeds. 57. Trifolium repens L.. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 63:243-266
Hilligardt, M., Weberling, F. 1989: Wuchsformen bei Trifolium. Flora 182:185-234
Dong, M., During, H.J., Werger, M.J.A. 1996: Morphological response to nutrient availability in four clonal herbs. Vegetatio 123:183-192
Tamm, C.O. 1948: Observations on reproduction of some perennial herbs. Botaniska Notiser 101:305-321
Gluch, W. 1971: Wuchsformstudien an zentraleuropäischen Fabaceen. IV. Die Stauden der Gattungen Lathyrus L. und Vicia L.. Feddes Repertorium 81:539-575
Kershaw, K.A. 1959: An investigation of a grassland community. II. The pattern of Dactylis glomerata, Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens. III. Discussion and conclusions. Journal of Ecology 47:31-53
Golubev, V.N. 1957: Materialy k ekologo-morfologiceskoj i geneticeskoj charakteristikje zhizjennych form travjanistych rastenij. Botaniceskij Zhurnal 42:1055-1072
Holm, T. 1925: On the development of buds upon roots and leaves. Annals of Botany 39:867-881
Irmisch, T. 1859: Über Lathyrus tuberosus und einige andere Papilionaceen. Bot. Ztg. 17:57-63
Wittrock, V.B. 1884: Über Wurzelsprosse bei krautigen Gewächsen, mit besonderer Rücksicht auf ihre verschiedene biologische Bedeutung. Biol. Centralbl. 17:227-232
Briemle, G., Schreiber, K.F. 1994: Zur Frage der Beeinflussung pflanzlicher Lebens- und Wuchsformen durch unterschiedliche Landschaftspflegemaßnahmen. Tuexenia 14:229-244
Kästner, A., Karrer, G. 1995: Übersicht der Wuchsformentypen als Grundlage für deren Erfassung in der "Flora von Österreich". Florae Austriacae Novit. 3:1-51
Wareing, P.F. 1964: The developmental physiology of rhizomatous and creeping plants. Seventh Brit. Weed Contr. Conf. 1:1020-1030
Gluch, W. 1964: Wuchsformen und Wuchstypen einheimischer Fabaceen-Stauden.. Diss. Univ. Halle-Wittenberg
Raunkiaer, C. 1934: The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford
Bell, A.D. 1994: Illustrierte Morphologie der Blütenpflanzen. Ulmer, Stuttgart
 
group of traits: Leaf traits »
Leaf persistence »
Leaf persistence i (persistent green)
Leaf anatomy »
Leaf anatomy m (mesomorphic)
Leaf anatomy y (hygromorphic)
Leaf form »
Leaf form gefin (palmate)
 
group of traits: Flowering phenology »
Flowering phenology »
Begin of flowering (months) 5
End of flowering (months) 9
Duration of flowering (months) 5
Number of flowering phases 0
Symphenological Groups »
Phenological group 6 (Cornus sanguinea-Melica uniflora-Phase)
Phenological season: start of early summer
Reference Dierschke, H 1995: Phänologische und symphänologische Artengruppen von Blütenpflanzen in Mitteleuropa. Tuexenia 15: 523-560
 
group of traits: Floral and reproductive biology »
Type of reproduction »
Type of reproduction sv (by seed and vegetatively)
Reference Turkington, R., Burdon, J.J. 1983: The biology of Canadian weeds. 57. Trifolium repens L.. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 63:243-266
Type of seed production »
Type of seed production s (amphimictic, sexual)
Reference Turkington, R., Burdon, J.J. 1983: The biology of Canadian weeds. 57. Trifolium repens L.. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 63:243-266
Dicliny »
Dicliny so (hermaphroditic)
Abundance always [1]
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Dichogamy »
Dichogamy h (homogamous)
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Self-sterility and self-incompatibility »
Self-sterility and self-incompatibility I+ (± self-incompatibel)
Reference Turkington, R., Burdon, J.J. 1983: The biology of Canadian weeds. 57. Trifolium repens L.. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 63:243-266
Systematic reference species [S]
Self-sterility and self-incompatibility SI (self-incompatibel)
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Systematic reference species [S]
SI mechanism »
SI mechanism GSI (gametophytic self-incompatibility)
Reference Burdon, J.J. 1983: Biological Flora of the British Isles: Trifolium repens L.. Journal of Ecology 71:307-330
Pollen vector »
Pollen vector in (insects)
Pollen vector group: zo (Tierbestäubung)
Abundance always [1]
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Systematic reference species [S]
Breeding system »
Breeding system X (allogamous)
Reference Anmerkung 2002: xenogam, da SI
P/O ratio »
P/O ratio 1648.0
Reference Rodriguez-Riano, T., Ortega-Olivencia, A., Devesa, J.A. 1999: Biologia floral en Fabaceae. Ruizia, Monografias des Real Jardin Botanico, Madrid 16:1-176
Floral rewards »
Floral rewards 1 (nectar)
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Amount of floral reward 3 (present)
Flower color »
Flower colour white or pinkish
Basic flower colour w (white)
Reference Schubert, R., Jäger, E.J., Werner, K. (Hrsg.) 1987: Exkursionsflora Band 3. Atlas der Gefäßpflanzen. 6. Aufl., Volk und Wissen, Berlin
UV reflection of the flower »
UV reflection in the periphery of the flower 1 (0-7 %)
UV reflection in the centre of the flower 1 (0-7 %)
UV reflection pattern 0 (no UV reflectance patterns)
Flower class after MUELLER »
Flower class after MUELLER Hb (bee flowers )
Typical pollinators: bees
Flower type after KUGLER »
Flower type after KUGLER 6.1a (flag blossom, Fabaceae type, valvular mechanism)
 
group of traits: Seed traits »
Fruit type »
Fruit type Hü (legume)
Diaspore type »
Diaspore type FZb (fruit with appendage)
Germinule type »
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Germinule type FZb (fruit with appendage)
Information available True
Development of nutritious appendages  
Development of flat appendages  
Development of elongated appendages always [1]
Development of additional appendages always [1]
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Germinule type S (seed)
Information available True
Development of nutritious appendages  
Development of flat appendages  
Development of elongated appendages  
Development of additional appendages  
Weights »
Measured object Germinule
Type of germinule or diaspore S (seed)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Weight (minimum) [mg] 0.4
Weight (mean) [mg] 0.6
Weight (maximum) [mg] 0.8
Sizes »
Measured object Germinule
Type of germinule or diaspore F (fruit)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Length (minimum) [mm] 3.5
Length (mean) [mm] 4.4
Length (maximum) [mm] 5.0
Width (minimum) [mm] 1.2
Width (mean) [mm] 1.4
Width (maximum) [mm] 1.5
Height (minimum) [mm]  
Height (mean) [mm]  
Height (maximum) [mm]  
Measured object Germinule
Type of germinule or diaspore S (seed)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Length (minimum) [mm] 0.8
Length (mean) [mm] 1.2
Length (maximum) [mm] 1.5
Width (minimum) [mm] 0.6
Width (mean) [mm] 1.0
Width (maximum) [mm] 1.3
Height (minimum) [mm] 0.4
Height (mean) [mm] 0.7
Height (maximum) [mm] 1.0
special references:
Grime, J.P., Mason, G., Curtis, A.V., Rodman, J., Band, S.R., Mowforth, M.A., Neal, A.M., Shaw, S. 1981: A comparative study of germination characteristics in a local flora. Journal of Ecology 69:1017-1069 (Gattung)
Zohary, M., Heller, D. 1984: The genus Trifolium. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem (Gattung)
Thompson, K., Band, S.R., Hodgson, J.G. 1993: Seed size and shape predict persistence in soil. Functional Ecology 7:236-241 (Gattung)
Grime, J.P., Hodgson, J.G., Hunt, R. 1988: Comparative Plant Ecology. Unwin Hyman, London (Gattung)
Anderberg, A.L. 1994: Atlas of seeds and small fruits of Northwest-European plant species with morphological descriptions. - Part 4 (Resedaceae - Umbelliferae). Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm (Gattung)
Bakker, J.P., Bakker, E.S., Rosén, E., Verweij, G.L., Bekker, R.M. 1996: Soil seed bank composition along a gradient from dry alvar grassland to Juniperus shrubland. Journal of Vegetation Science 7:165-176 (Gattung)
Bakker, J.P., Bakker, E.S., Rosén, E., Verweij, G.L. 1997: The soil seed bank of undisturbed and disturbed dry limestone grassland on Öland (Sweden). Z. Ökologie Nat. sch. 6:9-18 (Gattung)
Beijerink, W. 1947: Zadenatlas der Nederlandsche Flora. Biol. Stat. Wijster, Wageningen (Gattung)
Brouwer, W., Stählin, A. 1955: Handbuch der Samenkunde. DLG-Verlag, Frankfurt/Main (Gattung)
Cremer, J., Partzsch, M., Zimmermann, M., Schwär, C., Goltz, H. 1991: Acker- und Gartenwildkräuter: ein Bestimmungsbuch. . Deutscher Landwirtschaftsverlag, Berlin. (Gattung)
Lhotska, M., Chrtkova, A. 1978: Karpologie a diasporologie ceskoslovensk'ych zastupc u celedi Fabaceae. Academia, Praha (Gattung)
Luftensteiner, H.W. 1982: Untersuchungen zur Verbreitungssbiologie von Pflanzengemeinschaften an vier Standorten in Niederösterreich. Bibliotheca Botanica 135:1-68 (Gattung)
McDonald, A.W., Bakker, J.P., Vegelin, K. 1996: Seed bank classification and ist importance for the restoration of species-rich flood-meadows. Journal of Vegetation Science 7:157-164 (Gattung)
Urbanska, K.M., Schütz, M. 1986: Reproduction by seed in alpine plants and revegetation research above timberline. Botanica Helvetica 96:43-60 (Gattung)
Heinisch, O. 1955: Samenatlas der wichtigsten Futterpflanzen und ihrer Unkräuter. Deutsche Akad. Landwirtsch.-Wiss., Berlin (Gattung)
 
group of traits: Ecological strategy »
Strategy type »
Strategy type csr (competitors/stress-tolerators/ruderals)
 
group of traits: Indicator values for grassland species »
Grassland utilization indicator values »
Occurrence GW (commercial grasslands)
Guild Lk (herbaceous legume)
Mowing tolerance 8 (between 7 and 9 (well tolerant to very tolerant to mowing))
Grazing tolerance 8 (between 7 and 9 (well tolerant to very tolerant to grazing))
Trampling tolerance 8 (between 7 and 9 (well tolerant to very tolerant to trampling))
Foraging value 9 (best forage value)
Foraging value for deer 6 (between 6 and 8 (intermediate to high forage value))
 
group of traits: Range »
Floristic zone and altitudinal level »
Floristic zone u (austral and/or antarctic)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Floristic zone r (tropical)
Altitudinal level m (montane)
Status natural range
Floristic zone o (subtropical)
Altitudinal level m (montane)
Status natural range
Floristic zone m (meridional)
Altitudinal level m (montane)
Status natural range
Floristic zone e (submeridional)
Altitudinal level m (montane)
Status natural range
Floristic zone p (southern temperate)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Floristic zone n (northern temperate)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Floristic zone b (boreal)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Number of inhabited floristic zones »
Number of inhabited floristic zones 7
Floristic region »
Floristic region c (circumpolar)
Continent of floristic region: c (circumpolar)
Status natural range
 
group of traits: Hemeroby »
Hemeroby »
Hemeroby m (mesohemerobic)
Hemeroby b (b-euhemerobic)
Hemeroby c (a-euhemerobic)
Number of hemerobic levels »
Number of hemerobic levels 3
 
group of traits: Urbanity »
Urbanity »
Urbanity 3 (urbanoneutral)
 
group of traits: Habitats »
Habitat »
Habitat T10.3.3.1 (null)
Alliance: ???
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
Habitat T7.1.2 (null)
Alliance: Arrhenatherion
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
Habitat T7.2.1 (null)
Alliance: Cynosurion cristati p.p.
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
Habitat T7.4 (null)
Alliance: ???
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
Habitat T9.1 (null)
Alliance: Violenea arvensis
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
Habitat T9.2 (null)
Alliance: ???
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
Habitat T9.5.1 (null)
Alliance: ???
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
 
group of traits: Sociology »
Class »
English circumscription 05.4 (Commercially used grasslands)
Class: Molinio-Arrhenatheretea
English circumscription 05.5 (Communities of flooded and trampled grasslands)
Class: Agrostietea stoloniferae
English circumscription 06.3 (Communities of annual trampling resistent plants)
Class: Polygono arenastri-Poetea annuae
 
 
groups of traits for this species
Status »
Chromosome number »
DNA content »
Phylogeny »
Morphology »
Leaf traits »
Flowering phenology »
Floral and reproductive biology »
Seed traits »
Ecological strategy »
Indicator values for grassland species »
Range »
Hemeroby »
Urbanity »
Habitats »
Sociology »


Display of complete information for the selected species. Only traits available for the selected species are displayed.